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Carrots and Sticks: Pay, Supervision, and Turnover

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  • Leonard, Jonathan S

Abstract

The efficiency wage model (EWM) has been advanced as an explanation for large and persistent wage differentials. The shirking version of the EWM assumes a trade-off b etween self-supervision and external supervision. The turnover versio n assumes turnover is costly to the firm. Variation across firms in t he cost of monitoring/shirking or turnover then is hypothesized to ac count for wage variations across firms for homogeneous workers. Using a new sample of firm data, this paper presents empirical evidence of the trade-off of wage premiums for supervisory intensity and turnove r. Little evidence is found to support either version of the EWM. Copyright 1987 by University of Chicago Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Leonard, Jonathan S, 1987. "Carrots and Sticks: Pay, Supervision, and Turnover," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 5(4), pages 136-152, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucp:jlabec:v:5:y:1987:i:4:p:s136-52
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    1. Cain, Glen G, 1976. "The Challenge of Segmented Labor Market Theories to Orthodox Theory: A Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 1215-1257, December.
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    3. Brown, Charles & Medoff, James, 1989. "The Employer Size-Wage Effect," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(5), pages 1027-1059, October.
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