IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

The effect of mergers and acquisitions on productivity: An empirical application to Spanish banking


  • Bernad, Cristina
  • Fuentelsaz, Lucio
  • Gómez, Jaime


Mergers and acquisitions are frequently justified in terms of value creation or efficiency improvements. Nevertheless, the evidence is not consistent with the existence of benefits in terms of the costs, productivity, profitability or market value of the firms involved. A distinguishing feature of extant research is that it focuses on the assessment of the consequences of mergers around the time in which the operation takes place, limiting the possibility of observing a complete integration between the merged firms. In this context, the objective of this paper is to evaluate the effects of mergers and acquisitions on the long-run productivity of Spanish savings banks. Our results show that productivity improvements can be found in only half of the mergers that take place during the period analyzed.

Suggested Citation

  • Bernad, Cristina & Fuentelsaz, Lucio & Gómez, Jaime, 2010. "The effect of mergers and acquisitions on productivity: An empirical application to Spanish banking," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 283-293, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jomega:v:38:y:2010:i:5:p:283-293

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Haynes, Michelle & Thompson, Steve, 1999. "The productivity effects of bank mergers: Evidence from the UK building societies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 825-846, May.
    2. Roll, Richard, 1986. "The Hubris Hypothesis of Corporate Takeovers," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(2), pages 197-216, April.
    3. Rhoades, Stephen A., 1998. "The efficiency effects of bank mergers: An overview of case studies of nine mergers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 273-291, March.
    4. Valverde, S. Carbo & Humphrey, David B. & Fernandez, F. Rodriguez, 2003. "Bank deregulation is better than mergers," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 13(5), pages 429-449, December.
    5. Kumbhakar, Subal C, et al, 2001. "The Effects of Deregulation on the Performance of Financial Institutions: The Case of Spanish Savings Banks," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(1), pages 101-120, February.
    6. Avkiran, Necmi K., 2009. "Opening the black box of efficiency analysis: An illustration with UAE banks," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 930-941, August.
    7. Michael Koetter, 2008. "An Assessment of Bank Merger Success in Germany," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 9, pages 232-264, May.
    8. Vennet, Rudi Vander, 1996. "The effect of mergers and acquisitions on the efficiency and profitability of EC credit institutions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(9), pages 1531-1558, November.
    9. Berger, Allen N. & Humphrey, David B., 1991. "The dominance of inefficiencies over scale and product mix economies in banking," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 117-148, August.
    10. Spagnolo, Giancarlo, 1999. "On Interdependent Supergames: Multimarket Contact, Concavity, and Collusion," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 89(1), pages 127-139, November.
    11. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    12. Subal kumbhakar & Ana Lozano-Vivas, 2005. "Deregulation and Productivity: The Case of Spanish Banks," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 27(3), pages 331-351, January.
    13. Grifell-Tatje, E. & Lovell, C. A. K., 1996. "Deregulation and productivity decline: The case of Spanish bavings banks," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1281-1303, June.
    14. Shaffer, Sherrill, 1993. "Can megamergers improve bank efficiency?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 423-436, April.
    15. Very, Philippe & Schweiger, David M., 2001. "The acquisition process as a learning process: Evidence from a study of critical problems and solutions in domestic and cross-border deals," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 11-31, April.
    16. B. Douglas Bernheim & Michael D. Whinston, 1990. "Multimarket Contact and Collusive Behavior," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 21(1), pages 1-26, Spring.
    17. Haynes, Michelle & Thompson, Steve, 2000. " The Productivity Impact of IT Deployment: An Empirical Evaluation of ATM Introduction," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 62(5), pages 607-619, December.
    18. Caves, Richard E., 1989. "Mergers, takeovers, and economic efficiency : Foresight vs. hindsight," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 151-174, March.
    19. Valverde, Santiago Carbo & Humphrey, David B., 2004. "Predicted and actual costs from individual bank mergers," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 137-157.
    20. Resti, Andrea, 1998. "Regulation Can Foster Mergers, Can Mergers Foster Efficiency? The Italian Case," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 157-169, March.
    21. Erik Brynjolfsson & Lorin Hitt, 1996. "Paradox Lost? Firm-Level Evidence on the Returns to Information Systems Spending," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 42(4), pages 541-558, April.
    22. Halpern, Paul, 1983. " Corporate Acquisitions: A Theory of Special Cases? A Review of Event Studies Applied to Acquisitions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(2), pages 297-317, May.
    23. Gabriel Hawawini & Venkata Subban Subramanian & Paul Verdin, 2003. "Is performance driven by industry- or firm-specific factors? A new look at the evidence," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/14188, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    24. Avkiran, Necmi K., 2009. "Removing the impact of environment with units-invariant efficient frontier analysis: An illustrative case study with intertemporal panel data," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 535-544, June.
    25. Subal Kumbhakar & Ana Lozano-Vivas, 2004. "Does deregulation make markets more competitive? Evidence of mark-ups in Spanish savings banks," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(7), pages 507-515.
    26. Sealey, Calvin W, Jr & Lindley, James T, 1977. "Inputs, Outputs, and a Theory of Production and Cost at Depository Financial Institutions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1251-1266, September.
    27. Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1992. "Megamergers in banking and the use of cost efficiency as an antitrust defense," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 203, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    28. Capron, Laurence & Mitchell, Will, 1998. "Bilateral Resource Redeployment and Capabilities Improvement Following Horizontal Acquisitions," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(3), pages 453-484, September.
    29. Capron, Laurence & Mitchell, Will, 1998. "The Role of Acquisitions in Reshaping Business Capabilities in the International Telecommunications Industry," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(4), pages 715-730, December.
    30. Julian Birkinshaw, 2000. "Managing the Post-acquisition Integration Process: How the Human Iintegration and Task Integration Processes Interact to Foster Value Creation," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37, pages 395-425, May.
    31. Amel, Dean & Barnes, Colleen & Panetta, Fabio & Salleo, Carmelo, 2004. "Consolidation and efficiency in the financial sector: A review of the international evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(10), pages 2493-2519, October.
    32. Murray, John D & White, Robert W, 1980. "Economies of Scale and Deposit-Taking Financial Institutions in Canada: A Study of British Columbia Credit Unions," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 12(1), pages 58-70, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Dionysios Polemis & Thanasis Karlis, 2016. "Measuring Post-Merger and Acquisition Performance of Corporations in the Maritime Transport Sector," SPOUDAI Journal of Economics and Business, SPOUDAI Journal of Economics and Business, University of Piraeus, vol. 66(3), pages 83-93, July-Sept.
    2. Lee, Peter K.C. & Cheng, T.C. Edwin & Yeung, Andy C.L. & Lai, Kee-hung, 2011. "An empirical study of transformational leadership, team performance and service quality in retail banks," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 690-701, December.
    3. Hai-Liu Shi & Ying-Ming Wang & Sheng-Qun Chen & Yi-Xin Lan, 2017. "An approach to two-sided M&A fits based on a cross-efficiency evaluation with contrasting attitudes," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Palgrave Macmillan;The OR Society, vol. 68(1), pages 41-52, January.
    4. Jaime Gómez & Raquel Orcos & Sergio Palomas, 2014. "The evolving patterns of competition after deregulation: the relevance of institutional and operational factors as determinants of rivalry," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 24(4), pages 905-933, September.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jomega:v:38:y:2010:i:5:p:283-293. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.