IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

Impact of off-farm labor supply on food expenditures of the farm household

Listed author(s):
  • Chang, Hung-Hao
  • Mishra, Ashok

Farm households diversify their income sources by working off the farm. This is a risk management strategy that is used by farm households in both developed and developing countries. Income diversification via off-farm work is associated with higher incomes and food consumption. However, little is known about the association between off-farm work and farm household food expenditures. In an effort to bridge this gap, this study attempts to assess the impact of off-farm work decisions by the operator and/or the spouse on the food expenditures of the farm household. Using a nationwide farm household survey in the United States and new econometric method, we find that the decisions of the operator and/or the spouse to work off the farm are significantly interrelated (29%). However, these two decisions affect food expenditures in different ways. The operator's off-farm work decision is positively related to food expenditures, while the spouse's decision is negatively associated with expenditures on food by the farm household.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306-9192(08)00018-3
Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Food Policy.

Volume (Year): 33 (2008)
Issue (Month): 6 (December)
Pages: 657-664

as
in new window

Handle: RePEc:eee:jfpoli:v:33:y:2008:i:6:p:657-664
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/foodpol

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as
in new window


  1. Huffman, Wallace E & Lange, Mark D, 1989. "Off-Farm Work Decisions of Husbands and Wives: Joint Decision Making," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(3), pages 471-480, August.
  2. Mishra, Ashok K. & Holthausen, Duncan M., 2002. "Effect of Farm Income and Off-Farm Wage Variability on Off-Farm Labor Supply," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 31(02), pages 187-199, October.
  3. Richard Nehring & Jorge Fernandez-Cornejo & David Banker, 2005. "Off-farm labour and the structure of US agriculture: the case of corn/soybean farms," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(6), pages 633-649.
  4. Ruben, Ruerd & Van den berg, Marrit, 2001. "Nonfarm Employment and Poverty Alleviation of Rural Farm Households in Honduras," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 549-560, March.
  5. Lim-Applegate, Hazel & Rodriguez, Gil & Olfert, M. Rose, 2002. "Determinants of non-farm labour participation rates among farmers in Australia," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 46(1), March.
  6. Huffman, Wallace E, 1980. "Farm and Off-Farm Work Decisions: The Role of Human Capital," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 62(1), pages 14-23, February.
  7. Huffman, Wallace E., 1991. "Agricultural Household Models: Survey and Critique," Staff General Research Papers Archive 11008, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  8. A. Kimhi, 1994. "Participation Of Farm Owners In Farm And Off-Farm Work Including The Option Of Full-Time Off-Farm Work," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(2), pages 232-239.
  9. Ashok K. Mishra & Barry K. Goodwin, 1997. "Farm Income Variability and the Supply of Off-Farm Labor," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 79(3), pages 880-887.
  10. Chul-Woo Kwon & Peter F. Orazem & Daniel M. Otto, 2006. "Off-farm labor supply responses to permanent and transitory farm income," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 34(1), pages 59-67, 01.
  11. Strober, Myra H & Weinberg, Charles B, 1977. " Working Wives and Major Family Expenditures," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 4(3), pages 141-147, December.
  12. Janvry, Alain de & Sadoulet, Elisabeth, 2001. "Income Strategies Among Rural Households in Mexico: The Role of Off-farm Activities," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 467-480, March.
  13. Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr., 1996. "Wife'S Labor Force Participation And Family Expenditures For Prepared Food, Food Prepared At Home, And Food Away From Home," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 25(2), October.
  14. Vella, Francis & Verbeek, Marno, 1999. "Estimating and Interpreting Models with Endogenous Treatment Effects," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 17(4), pages 473-478, October.
  15. Ashok Mishra & Barry Goodwin, 1998. "Income risk and allocation of labour time: an empirical investigation," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(12), pages 1549-1555.
  16. Joe Dewbre, 2006. "The Impact of Coupled and Decoupled Government Subsidies on Off-Farm Labor Participation of U.S. Farm Operators," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 88(2), pages 393-408.
  17. Killingsworth, Mark R. & Heckman, James J., 1987. "Female labor supply: A survey," Handbook of Labor Economics,in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 2, pages 103-204 Elsevier.
  18. Browning, Martin & Meghir, Costas, 1991. "The Effects of Male and Female Labor Supply on Commodity Demands," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(4), pages 925-951, July.
  19. Derrick, Frederick W. & Dardis, Rachel & Lehfeld, Alane, 1982. "The Impact of Demographic Variables on Expenditures for Food Away From Home," Northeastern Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 11(1:).
  20. Reed, W Robert & Harford, Kathleen, 1989. "The Marriage Premium and Compensating Wage Differentials," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 2(4), pages 237-265.
  21. Fred J. Prochaska & R. A. Schrimper, 1973. "Opportunity Cost of Time and Other Socioeconomic Effects on Away-From-Home Food Consumption," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 55(4_Part_1), pages 595-603.
  22. Strober, Myra H & Weinberg, Charles B, 1980. " Strategies Used by Working and Nonworking Wives to Reduce Time Pressures," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 6(4), pages 338-348, March.
  23. Barry K. Goodwin & Ashok K. Mishra, 2004. "Farming Efficiency and the Determinants of Multiple Job Holding by Farm Operators," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 86(3), pages 722-729.
  24. J. G. Tokle & Wallace E. Huffman, 1991. "Local Economic Conditions and Wage Labor Decisions of Farm and Rural Nonfarm Couples," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 73(3), pages 652-670.
  25. John L. Park & Oral Capps, 1997. "Demand for Prepared Meals by U.S. Households," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 79(3), pages 814-824.
  26. Nickols, Sharon Y & Fox, Karen D, 1983. " Buying Time and Saving Time: Strategies for Managing Household Production," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(2), pages 197-208, September.
  27. Capps, Oral, Jr. & Tedford, John R. & Havlicek, Joseph, Jr., 1983. "Impacts Of Household Composition On Convenience And Nonconvenience Food Expenditures In The South," Southern Journal of Agricultural Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 15(02), December.
  28. Gebremedhin, Berhanu & Swinton, Scott M., 2001. "Reconciling food-for-work project feasibility with food aid targeting in Tigray, Ethiopia," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 85-95, February.
  29. Smallwood, David & Blaylock, James R., 1981. "Impact of Household Size and Income on Food Spending Patterns," Technical Bulletins 157048, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
  30. Bellante, Don & Foster, Ann C, 1984. " Working Wives and Expenditure on Services," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(2), pages 700-707, September.
  31. Jensen, Helen H. & Salant, P., 1985. "Role of Fringe Benefits in Operator Off-Farm Labor Supply (The)," Staff General Research Papers Archive 11235, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jfpoli:v:33:y:2008:i:6:p:657-664. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.