Does Participation in the Conservation Reserve Program and Off-Farm Work Affect the Level and Distribution of Farm Household Incomes?
Using a national survey of U.S farm households, this paper investigates the interrelationship among the decisions to work off the farm by the operator and the spouse, and participation in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). The effects of these three decisions on farm household income are also examined. By estimating a heteroscedastic household income function, we identify the effects of participating in these activities on the average level of farm household income and its variation within each sub-group of farms involved in the several combinations of activities. Our empirical results support the hypothesis that participation in the CRP and decisions to work off the farm by the operator and the spouse are made jointly rather than independently. The operators' decisions to work off the farm and to participate in CRP increase the mean level of the household income, while the spouses' decisions to work off the farm help decrease the variation in household income among households in that sub-group.
|Date of creation:||2006|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 555 East Wells Street, Suite 1100, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202|
Phone: (414) 918-3190
Fax: (414) 276-3349
Web page: http://www.aaea.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ashok K. Mishra & Barry K. Goodwin, 1997. "Farm Income Variability and the Supply of Off-Farm Labor," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 79(3), pages 880-887.
- Huffman, Wallace E., 1991. "Agricultural Household Models: Survey and Critique," Staff General Research Papers Archive 11008, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Hisham El-Osta & Ashok Mishra & Mary Ahearn, 2004. "Labor Supply by Farm Operators Under “Decoupled” Farm Program Payments," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 2(4), pages 367-385, 08.
- Lim-Applegate, Hazel & Rodriguez, Gil & Olfert, M. Rose, 2002. "Determinants of non-farm labour participation rates among farmers in Australia," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 46(1), March.
- Vella, Francis, 1993.
"A Simple Estimator for Simultaneous Models with Censored Endogenous Regressors,"
International Economic Review,
Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 34(2), pages 441-57, May.
- Vella, F., 1989. "A Simple Estimator For Simultaneous Models With Censored Endogenous Regressors," RCER Working Papers 199, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
- Vella, Francis & Verbeek, Marno, 1999. "Estimating and Interpreting Models with Endogenous Treatment Effects," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 17(4), pages 473-78, October.
- Vassilis A. Hajivassiliou & Daniel L. McFadden & Paul Ruud, 1993.
"Simulation of Multivariate Normal Rectangle Probabilities and their Derivatives: Theoretical and Computational Results,"
_024, Yale University.
- Hajivassiliou, Vassilis & McFadden, Daniel & Ruud, Paul, 1996. "Simulation of multivariate normal rectangle probabilities and their derivatives theoretical and computational results," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1-2), pages 85-134.
- Kwon, Chul-Woo & Orazem, Peter F. & Otto, Daniel M., 2002. "The Determinants Of Participation Decision In Off-Farm Work: The Iowa Case," 2002 Annual meeting, July 28-31, Long Beach, CA 19652, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
- Susan Offutt, 2002. "The Future of Farm Policy Analysis: A Household Perspective," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 84(5), pages 1189-1200.
- Mishra, Ashok K. & El-Osta, Hisham S. & Morehart, Mitchell J. & Johnson, James D. & Hopkins, Jeffrey W., 2002. "Income, Wealth, And The Economic Well-Being Of Farm Households," Agricultural Economics Reports 33967, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
- Smith, Richard J & Blundell, Richard W, 1986. "An Exogeneity Test for a Simultaneous Equation Tobit Model with an Application to Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(3), pages 679-85, May.
- Parks, Peter J. & Schorr, James P., 1997. "Sustaining Open Space Benefits in the Northeast: An Evaluation of the Conservation Reserve Program," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 85-94, January.
- Barry K. Goodwin & Ashok K. Mishra, 2004. "Farming Efficiency and the Determinants of Multiple Job Holding by Farm Operators," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 86(3), pages 722-729.
- Duke, Joshua M., 2004. "Participation in Agricultural Land Preservation Programs: Parcel Quality and a Complex Policy Environment," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 33(1), April.
- Heckman, James, 2013.
"Sample selection bias as a specification error,"
Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
- Barry K. Goodwin & Matthew T. Holt, 2002. "Parametric and Semiparametric Modeling of the Off-Farm Labor Supply of Agrarian Households in Transition Bulgaria," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 84(1), pages 184-209.
- Murat Isik, 2002. "Resource Management under Production and Output Price Uncertainty: Implications for Environmental Policy," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 84(3), pages 557-571.
- Atanu Saha & Arthur Havenner & Hovav Talpaz, 1997. "Stochastic production function estimation: small sample properties of ML versus FGLS," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(4), pages 459-469.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:aaea06:21277. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.