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Financial development and the product cycle

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  • Basco, Sergi

Abstract

I develop a model to study how financial institution differences across countries affect the offshoring decision of Northern firms and whether a product cycle arises when the only comparative advantage of Northern suppliers is their access to better financial institutions. A Northern final-good producer needs to buy an intermediate input from a supplier to complete production. She can find this supplier either in the low-wage but financially underdeveloped South or in the high-wage and financially developed North. I show that financial institution differences affect the optimal contract offered to the supplier and are enough to generate a product cycle. The final-good producer faces a trade-off between low wages and contracting distortions. When the good is new, she finds it optimal to keep production in the North, at the cost of a higher wage but with the benefit of a less distorted contract. However, as the good becomes more standardized, the importance of the supplier increases and the cost of not shifting production to the South and take advantage of the lower wage offsets the contractual distortions that the underdeveloped Southern financial institutions create. The most salient empirical prediction is that the more R&D-intensive an industry is, the larger is the effect of financial development on offshoring. These results also hold when wages are endogenized. In the empirical section, the prediction is tested and confirmed using disaggregated trade data.

Suggested Citation

  • Basco, Sergi, 2013. "Financial development and the product cycle," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 295-313.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jeborg:v:94:y:2013:i:c:p:295-313
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jebo.2012.10.003
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    Cited by:

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    2. Juan Carluccio & Thibault Fally, 2012. "Global Sourcing under Imperfect Capital Markets," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 94(3), pages 740-763, August.
    3. Pol Antràs, 2014. "Grossman–Hart (1986) Goes Global: Incomplete Contracts, Property Rights, and the International Organization of Production," The Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 30(suppl_1), pages 118-175.
    4. Karabay, Bilgehan, 2022. "A new dimension in global value chains: Control vs. delegation in input procurement," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 137(C).
    5. Basco, Sergi & Mestieri, Marti, 2013. "Mergers along the Global Supply Chain: Information Technologies and Routineness," TSE Working Papers 13-428, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE), revised Nov 2013.
    6. Antrà s, Pol & Yeaple, Stephen R., 2014. "Multinational Firms and the Structure of International Trade," Handbook of International Economics, in: Gopinath, G. & Helpman, . & Rogoff, K. (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 0, pages 55-130, Elsevier.
    7. Sheng, Liugang & Yang, Dennis Tao, 2016. "Expanding export variety: The role of institutional reforms in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 45-58.
    8. Antonio Ciccone & Elias Papaioannou, 2016. "Estimating Cross-Industry Cross-Country Interaction Models Using Benchmark Industry Characteristics," NBER Working Papers 22368, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. SERGI BASCO & John P. Tang, 2017. "The Samurai Bond: Credit Supply And Economic Growth In Pre-War Japan," CEH Discussion Papers 05, Centre for Economic History, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
    10. Fromenteau, Philippe, 2016. "Information Technology and Global Sourcing," Discussion Papers in Economics 29631, University of Munich, Department of Economics.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Financial development; Product cycle; Offshoring;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D23 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Organizational Behavior; Transaction Costs; Property Rights
    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • L23 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Organization of Production
    • O16 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance

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