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In-group favoritism and discrimination among multiple out-groups

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  • Grimm, Veronika
  • Utikal, Verena
  • Valmasoni, Lorenzo

Abstract

In this study, we investigate how and why people discriminate among different groups, including their in-group and multiple out-groups. In a laboratory experiment, we use dictator games for five groups to compare actual transfers to in-group and out-group agents with the respective beliefs held by dictators and recipients in these groups. We observe both in-group favoritism and discrimination across multiple out-groups. Individuals expect others to be in-group biased, as well as to be treated differently by different out-groups. We find that dictators’ in-group favoritism is positively related to the degree of in-group favoritism they expect other dictators to exhibit. Moreover, we find that a dictator tends to be relatively more generous toward a specific out-group when he or she expects that dictators belonging to that out-group are generous toward members of his or her in-group. Thus, our study provides evidence for indirect reciprocation expectation.

Suggested Citation

  • Grimm, Veronika & Utikal, Verena & Valmasoni, Lorenzo, 2017. "In-group favoritism and discrimination among multiple out-groups," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 143(C), pages 254-271.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jeborg:v:143:y:2017:i:c:p:254-271
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jebo.2017.08.015
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Discrimination; Experiment; Group identity; Dictator game; Beliefs;

    JEL classification:

    • C91 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Design of Experiments - - - Laboratory, Individual Behavior
    • C92 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Design of Experiments - - - Laboratory, Group Behavior
    • D84 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Expectations; Speculations
    • D01 - Microeconomics - - General - - - Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles
    • D64 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Altruism; Philanthropy; Intergenerational Transfers

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