Forecast combinations of computational intelligence and linear models for the NN5 time series forecasting competition
In this work we introduce the forecasting model with which we participated in the NN5 forecasting competition (the forecasting of 111 time series representing daily cash withdrawal amounts at ATM machines). The main idea of this model is to utilize the concept of forecast combination, which has proven to be an effective methodology in the forecasting literature. In the proposed system we attempted to follow a principled approach, and make use of some of the guidelines and concepts that are known in the forecasting literature to lead to superior performance. For example, we considered various previous comparison studies and time series competitions as guidance in determining which individual forecasting models to test (for possible inclusion in the forecast combination system). The final model ended up consisting of neural networks, Gaussian process regression, and linear models, combined by simple average. We also paid extra attention to the seasonality aspect, decomposing the seasonality into weekly (which is the strongest one), day of the month, and month of the year seasonality.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Balkin, Sandy D. & Ord, J. Keith, 2000. "Automatic neural network modeling for univariate time series," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 509-515.
- Hyndman, Rob J. & Koehler, Anne B. & Snyder, Ralph D. & Grose, Simone, 2002.
"A state space framework for automatic forecasting using exponential smoothing methods,"
International Journal of Forecasting,
Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 439-454.
- Hyndman, R.J. & Koehler, A.B. & Snyder, R.D. & Grose, S., 2000. "A State Space Framework for Automatic Forecasting Using Exponential Smoothing Methods," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 9/00, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
- Tashman, Leonard J., 2000. "Out-of-sample tests of forecasting accuracy: an analysis and review," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 437-450.
- Granger, Clive W. J. & Jeon, Yongil, 2004. "Thick modeling," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 323-343, March.
- de Menezes, Lilian M. & W. Bunn, Derek & Taylor, James W., 2000. "Review of guidelines for the use of combined forecasts," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 120(1), pages 190-204, January.
- Timmermann, Allan, 2006. "Forecast Combinations," Handbook of Economic Forecasting, Elsevier.
- Timmermann, Allan G, 2005. "Forecast Combinations," CEPR Discussion Papers 5361, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Marco Aiolfi & Carlos Capistrán & Allan Timmermann, 2010. "Forecast Combinations," Working Papers 2010-04, Banco de México.
- Marco Aiolfi & Carlos Capistrán & Allan Timmermann, 2010. "Forecast Combinations," CREATES Research Papers 2010-21, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
- Nesreen Ahmed & Amir Atiya & Neamat El Gayar & Hisham El-Shishiny, 2010. "An Empirical Comparison of Machine Learning Models for Time Series Forecasting," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(5-6), pages 594-621.
- Gardner, Everette Jr., 2006. "Exponential smoothing: The state of the art--Part II," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 637-666.
- Makridakis, Spyros & Hibon, Michele, 2000. "The M3-Competition: results, conclusions and implications," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 451-476.
- Callen, Jeffrey L. & Kwan, Clarence C. Y. & Yip, Patrick C. Y. & Yuan, Yufei, 1996. "Neural network forecasting of quarterly accounting earnings," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 475-482, December.
- Clemen, Robert T., 1989. "Combining forecasts: A review and annotated bibliography," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 559-583.
- Francis X. Diebold & Jose A. Lopez, 1995. "Forecast evaluation and combination," Research Paper 9525, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Francis X. Diebold & Jose A. Lopez, 1996. "Forecast Evaluation and Combination," NBER Technical Working Papers 0192, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Brahim-Belhouari, Sofiane & Bermak, Amine, 2004. "Gaussian process for nonstationary time series prediction," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 47(4), pages 705-712, November.
- Tim Hill & Marcus O'Connor & William Remus, 1996. "Neural Network Models for Time Series Forecasts," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 42(7), pages 1082-1092, July.
- Chen, Huijing & Boylan, John E., 2008. "Empirical evidence on individual, group and shrinkage seasonal indices," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 525-534.
- Aiolfi, Marco & Timmermann, Allan, 2006. "Persistence in forecasting performance and conditional combination strategies," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 135(1-2), pages 31-53.
- Zhang, G. Peter & Qi, Min, 2005. "Neural network forecasting for seasonal and trend time series," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 160(2), pages 501-514, January.
- Mark W. Watson & James H. Stock, 2004. "Combination forecasts of output growth in a seven-country data set," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(6), pages 405-430.
- Ghysels, Eric & Osborn, Denise R. & Rodrigues, Paulo M.M., 2006. "Forecasting Seasonal Time Series," Handbook of Economic Forecasting, Elsevier.
- Gardner, Everette Jr. & Diaz-Saiz, Joaquin, 2002. "Seasonal adjustment of inventory demand series: a case study," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 117-123. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)