IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/rug/rugwps/13-865.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Cash Demand Forecasting in ATMs by Clustering and Neural Networks

Author

Listed:
  • V. KAMINI
  • V. RAVI
  • A. PRINZIE
  • D. VAN DEN POEL

Abstract

To improve ATMs’ cash demand forecasts, this paper advocates the prediction of cash demand for groups of ATMs with similar day-of-the week cash demand patterns. We first clustered ATM centers into ATM clusters having similar day-of-the week withdrawal patterns. To retrieve “day-of-the-week” withdrawal seasonality parameters (effect of a Monday, etc) we built a time series model for each ATMs. For clustering, the succession of 7 continuous daily withdrawal seasonality parameters of ATMs is discretized. Next, the similarity between the different ATMs’ discretized daily withdrawal seasonality sequence is measured by the Sequence Alignment Method (SAM). For each cluster of ATMs, four neural networks viz., general regression neural network (GRNN), multi layer feed forward neural network (MLFF), group method of data handling (GMDH) and wavelet neural network (WNN) are built to predict an ATM center’s cash demand. The proposed methodology is applied on the NN5 competition dataset. We observed that GRNN yielded the best result of 18.44% symmetric mean absolute percentage error (SMAPE), which is better than the result of Andrawis et al. (2011). This is due to clustering followed by a forecasting phase. Further, the proposed approach yielded much smaller SMAPE values than the approach of direct prediction on the entire sample without clustering. From a managerial perspective, the clusterwise cash demand forecast helps the bank’s top management to design similar cash replenishment plans for all the ATMs in the same cluster. This cluster-level replenishment plans could result in saving huge operational costs for ATMs operating in a similar geographical region.

Suggested Citation

  • V. Kamini & V. Ravi & A. Prinzie & D. Van Den Poel, 2013. "Cash Demand Forecasting in ATMs by Clustering and Neural Networks," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 13/865, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  • Handle: RePEc:rug:rugwps:13/865
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://wps-feb.ugent.be/Papers/wp_13_865.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Andrawis, Robert R. & Atiya, Amir F. & El-Shishiny, Hisham, 2011. "Forecast combinations of computational intelligence and linear models for the NN5 time series forecasting competition," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 672-688.
    2. Castro, Jordi, 2009. "A stochastic programming approach to cash management in banking," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 192(3), pages 963-974, February.
    3. Andrawis, Robert R. & Atiya, Amir F. & El-Shishiny, Hisham, 2011. "Forecast combinations of computational intelligence and linear models for the NN5 time series forecasting competition," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 672-688, July.
    4. Bontempi, Gianluca & Ben Taieb, Souhaib, 2011. "Conditionally dependent strategies for multiple-step-ahead prediction in local learning," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 689-699.
    5. Wichard, Jörg D., 2011. "Forecasting the NN5 time series with hybrid models," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 700-707, July.
    6. Wichard, Jörg D., 2011. "Forecasting the NN5 time series with hybrid models," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 700-707.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Venkatesh, Kamini & Ravi, Vadlamani & Prinzie, Anita & Poel, Dirk Van den, 2014. "Cash demand forecasting in ATMs by clustering and neural networks," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 232(2), pages 383-392.
    2. An, Ning & Zhao, Weigang & Wang, Jianzhou & Shang, Duo & Zhao, Erdong, 2013. "Using multi-output feedforward neural network with empirical mode decomposition based signal filtering for electricity demand forecasting," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 279-288.
    3. Kück, Mirko & Freitag, Michael, 2021. "Forecasting of customer demands for production planning by local k-nearest neighbor models," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 231(C).
    4. Marcjasz, Grzegorz & Uniejewski, Bartosz & Weron, Rafał, 2019. "On the importance of the long-term seasonal component in day-ahead electricity price forecasting with NARX neural networks," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 1520-1532.
    5. Bontempi, Gianluca & Ben Taieb, Souhaib, 2011. "Conditionally dependent strategies for multiple-step-ahead prediction in local learning," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 689-699, July.
    6. Pennings, Clint L.P. & van Dalen, Jan & Rook, Laurens, 2019. "Coordinating judgmental forecasting: Coping with intentional biases," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 46-56.
    7. Oscar Claveria & Enric Monte & Salvador Torra, 2016. "Modelling cross-dependencies between Spain’s regional tourism markets with an extension of the Gaussian process regression model," SERIEs: Journal of the Spanish Economic Association, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 7(3), pages 341-357, August.
    8. Oscar Claveria & Enric Monte & Salvador Torra, 2017. "“Regional tourism demand forecasting with machine learning models: Gaussian process regression vs. neural network models in a multiple-input multiple-output setting”," AQR Working Papers 201701, University of Barcelona, Regional Quantitative Analysis Group, revised Jan 2017.
    9. Sermpinis, Georgios & Stasinakis, Charalampos & Dunis, Christian, 2014. "Stochastic and genetic neural network combinations in trading and hybrid time-varying leverage effects," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 21-54.
    10. Spiliotis, Evangelos & Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos & Assimakopoulos, Vassilios, 2019. "Tales from tails: On the empirical distributions of forecasting errors and their implication to risk," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 687-698.
    11. Oscar Claveria & Enric Monte & Salvador Torra, 2018. "“A regional perspective on the accuracy of machine learning forecasts of tourism demand based on data characteristics”," AQR Working Papers 201802, University of Barcelona, Regional Quantitative Analysis Group, revised Apr 2018.
    12. Szafranek, Karol, 2019. "Bagged neural networks for forecasting Polish (low) inflation," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 1042-1059.
    13. Marcjasz, Grzegorz & Uniejewski, Bartosz & Weron, Rafał, 2020. "Probabilistic electricity price forecasting with NARX networks: Combine point or probabilistic forecasts?," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 466-479.
    14. Keles, Dogan & Scelle, Jonathan & Paraschiv, Florentina & Fichtner, Wolf, 2016. "Extended forecast methods for day-ahead electricity spot prices applying artificial neural networks," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 162(C), pages 218-230.
    15. Kaihua Deng, 2015. "Predicting By Learning: An Adaptive Rationale," Annals of Financial Economics (AFE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 10(02), pages 1-14, December.
    16. Xiong, Tao & Bao, Yukun & Hu, Zhongyi, 2013. "Beyond one-step-ahead forecasting: Evaluation of alternative multi-step-ahead forecasting models for crude oil prices," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 405-415.
    17. Grzegorz Marcjasz & Bartosz Uniejewski & Rafal Weron, 2017. "Importance of the long-term seasonal component in day-ahead electricity price forecasting revisited: Neural network models," HSC Research Reports HSC/17/03, Hugo Steinhaus Center, Wroclaw University of Technology.
    18. Wong, Man Hong, 2013. "Investment models based on clustered scenario trees," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 227(2), pages 314-324.
    19. Alaeddine Faleh, 2011. "Un modèle de programmation stochastique pour l'allocation stratégique d'actifs d'un régime de retraite partiellement provisionné," Working Papers hal-00561965, HAL.
    20. Bruno Karoubi & R駩s Chenavaz, 2015. "Prices for cash and cash for prices? Theory and evidence on convenient pricing," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(38), pages 4102-4115, August.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Time Series; Neural Networks; SAM method; Clustering; ATM Cash withdrawal forecasting;
    All these keywords.

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:rug:rugwps:13/865. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/ferugbe.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Nathalie Verhaeghe (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/ferugbe.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.