IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/iburev/v23y2014i1p313-326.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The impact of MNE cultural diversity on the internationalization-performance relationship

Author

Listed:
  • de Jong, Gjalt
  • van Houten, Jerry

Abstract

Prior work has established the importance of degree of internationalization for understanding the performance of multinational enterprises. Despite all efforts, however, the relationship between degree of internationalization and firm performance (I-P) is still the subject of ongoing debate following inconclusive findings. We suggest that the international business literature has largely overlooked MNE cultural diversity as an essential determinant of the I-P relationship. We argue that the impact of the degree of internationalization on MNE performance is contingent on MNE cultural diversity. The impact of the degree of internationalization on performance is positive for MNEs that operate in culturally similar countries and negative for MNEs that operate in culturally diverse countries. Our study is among the first to examine the impact of MNE cultural diversity on the I-P relationship with a unique panel dataset from European multinationals. The results provide convincing support for our approach to the study of the degree of internationalization and MNE performance.

Suggested Citation

  • de Jong, Gjalt & van Houten, Jerry, 2014. "The impact of MNE cultural diversity on the internationalization-performance relationship," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 313-326.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:iburev:v:23:y:2014:i:1:p:313-326
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2013.05.005
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0969593113000747
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Rosalie L Tung & Alain Verbeke, 2010. "Beyond Hofstede and GLOBE: Improving the quality of cross-cultural research," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 41(8), pages 1259-1274, October.
    2. Dikova, Desislava, 2009. "Performance of foreign subsidiaries: Does psychic distance matter?," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 38-49, February.
    3. Lenn Gomes & Kannan Ramaswamy, 1999. "An Empirical Examination of the Form of the Relationship Between Multinationality and Performance," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 30(1), pages 173-187, March.
    4. Buckley, Peter J & Dunning, John H & Pearce, Robert D, 1984. "An Analysis of the Growth and Profitability of the World's Largest Firms, 1972 to 1977," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(1), pages 3-26.
    5. Farok J Contractor & Sumit K Kundu & Chin-Chun Hsu, 2003. "A three-stage theory of international expansion: the link between multinationality and performance in the service sector," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 34(1), pages 5-18, January.
    6. Riahi-Belkaoui, Ahmed, 1996. "Internationalization, diversification strategy and ownership structure: Implications for French MNE performance," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 367-376, August.
    7. Errunza, Vihang R & Senbet, Lemma W, 1984. " International Corporate Diversification, Market Valuation, and Size-Adjusted Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 727-743, July.
    8. Oded Shenkar, 2001. "Cultural Distance Revisited: Towards a More Rigorous Conceptualization and Measurement of Cultural Differences," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 32(3), pages 519-535, September.
    9. Jan Johanson & Jan-Erik Vahlne, 2009. "The Uppsala internationalization process model revisited: From liability of foreignness to liability of outsidership," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 40(9), pages 1411-1431, December.
    10. De Clercq, Dirk & Danis, Wade M. & Dakhli, Mourad, 2010. "The moderating effect of institutional context on the relationship between associational activity and new business activity in emerging economies," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 85-101, February.
    11. Chao, Mike Chen-Ho & Kumar, Vikas, 2010. "The impact of institutional distance on the international diversity-performance relationship," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 93-103, January.
    12. Errunza, Vihang R & Senbet, Lemma W, 1981. "The Effects of International Operations on the Market Value of the Firm: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 36(2), pages 401-417, May.
    13. Hennart, Jean-François & Roehl, Thomas & Zeng, Ming, 2002. "Do exits proxy a liability of foreignness?: The case of Japanese exits from the US," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 241-264.
    14. Wolfgang Keller & Stephen R. Yeaple, 2009. "Multinational Enterprises, International Trade, and Productivity Growth: Firm-Level Evidence from the United States," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 91(4), pages 821-831, November.
    15. Alan M Rugman & Alain Verbeke, 2004. "A perspective on regional and global strategies of multinational enterprises," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 35(1), pages 3-18, January.
    16. Galbreath, Jeremy & Galvin, Peter, 2008. "Firm factors, industry structure and performance variation: New empirical evidence to a classic debate," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 109-117, February.
    17. David J. Denis & Diane K. Denis & Keven Yost, 2002. "Global Diversification, Industrial Diversification, and Firm Value," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(5), pages 1951-1979, October.
    18. Banalieva, Elitsa R. & Robertson, Christopher J., 2010. "Performance, diversity, and multiplicity of foreign cross-listing portfolios," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 531-547, December.
    19. Daniel Sullivan, 1994. "Measuring the Degree of Internationalization of a Firm," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 25(2), pages 325-342, June.
    20. Sethi, Deepak & Guisinger, Stephen, 2002. "Liability of foreignness to competitive advantage: How multinational enterprises cope with the international business environment," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 223-240.
    21. Thierry Mayer & Gianmarco Ottaviano, 2008. "The Happy Few: The Internationalisation of European Firms," Intereconomics: Review of European Economic Policy, Springer;German National Library of Economics;Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), vol. 43(3), pages 135-148, May.
    22. Thomas Osegowitsch & André Sammartino, 2008. "Reassessing (home-)regionalisation," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 39(2), pages 184-196, March.
    23. Reid W. Click & Paul Harrison, 2000. "Does multinationality matter? Evidence of value destruction in U.S. multinational corporations," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2000-21, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    24. Petersen, Bent & Pedersen, Torben, 2002. "Coping with liability of foreignness: Different learning engagements of entrant firms," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 339-350.
    25. Giroud, Axèle & Scott-Kennel, Joanna, 2009. "MNE linkages in international business: A framework for analysis," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 555-566, December.
    26. Anita M McGahan & Rogerio Victer, 2010. "How much does home country matter to corporate profitability?," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 41(1), pages 142-165, January.
    27. Keith D Brouthers, 2002. "Institutional, Cultural and Transaction Cost Influences on Entry Mode Choice and Performance," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 33(2), pages 203-221, June.
    28. Jan Johanson & Jan-Erik Vahlne, 1977. "The Internationalization Process of the Firm—A Model of Knowledge Development and Increasing Foreign Market Commitments," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 8(1), pages 23-32, March.
    29. Teece, David J. & Rumelt, Richard & Dosi, Giovanni & Winter, Sidney, 1994. "Understanding corporate coherence : Theory and evidence," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 1-30, January.
    30. N Capar & M Kotabe, 2003. "The relationship between international diversification and performance in service firms," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 34(4), pages 345-355, July.
    31. Luis R Gómez-Mejia & Leslie E Palich, 1997. "Cultural Diversity and the Performance of Multinational Firms," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 28(2), pages 309-335, June.
    32. Mezias, Stephen J. & Chen, Ya-Ru & Murphy, Patrice & Biaggio, Angela & Chuawanlee, Wiladlak & Hui, Harry & Okumura, Tetsushi & Starr, Stephanie, 2002. "National cultural distance as liability of foreignness: the issue of level of analysis," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 407-421.
    33. Jody Evans & Felix T Mavondo, 2002. "Psychic Distance and Organizational Performance: An Empirical Examination of International Retailing Operations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 33(3), pages 515-532, September.
    34. de Jong, Gjalt & Phan, T. Binh & van Ees, Hans, 2011. "Does the meta-environment determine firm performance? Theory and evidence from European multinational enterprises," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 454-465, August.
    35. Simon Collinson & Alan M Rugman, 2008. "The regional nature of Japanese multinational business," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 39(2), pages 215-230, March.
    36. Thomas Hutzschenreuter & Johannes C. Voll & Alain Verbeke, 2011. "The Impact of Added Cultural Distance and Cultural Diversity on International Expansion Patterns: A Penrosean Perspective," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(2), pages 305-329, March.
    37. Calhoun, Mikelle A., 2002. "Unpacking liability of foreignness: identifying culturally driven external and internal sources of liability for the foreign subsidiary," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 301-321.
    38. Davide Castellani & Antonello Zanfei, 2007. "Internationalisation, Innovation and Productivity: How Do Firms Differ in Italy?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(1), pages 156-176, January.
    39. Bruce Kogut & Harbir Singh, 1988. "The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 19(3), pages 411-432, September.
    40. Bobillo, Alfredo M. & López-Iturriaga, Felix & Tejerina-Gaite, Fernando, 2010. "Firm performance and international diversification: The internal and external competitive advantages," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 607-618, December.
    41. Peter J Buckley & Pervez N Ghauri, 2004. "Globalisation, economic geography and the strategy of multinational enterprises," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 35(2), pages 81-98, March.
    42. Piero Morosini & Scott Shane & Harbir Singh, 1998. "National Cultural Distance and Cross-Border Acquisition Performance," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 29(1), pages 137-158, March.
    43. William P. Wan, 2005. "Country Resource Environments, Firm Capabilities, and Corporate Diversification Strategies," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(1), pages 161-182, January.
    44. Peter Buckley & John Dunning & Robert Pearce, 1978. "The influence of firm size, industry, nationality, and degree of multinationality on the growth and profitability of the World’s largest firms, 1962–1972," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 114(2), pages 243-257, June.
    45. Allen Michel & Israel Shaked, 1986. "Multinational Corporations vs Domestic Corporations: Financial Performance and Characteristics," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 17(3), pages 89-100, September.
    46. Rosalie L Tung, 2008. "The cross-cultural research imperative: the need to balance cross-national and intra-national diversity," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 39(1), pages 41-46, January.
    47. Laszlo Tihanyi & David A Griffith & Craig J Russell, 2005. "The effect of cultural distance on entry mode choice, international diversification, and MNE performance: a meta-analysis," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 36(3), pages 270-283, May.
    48. Sea-Jin Chang & Jay Hyuk Rhee, 2011. "Rapid FDI expansion and firm performance," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 42(8), pages 979-994, October.
    49. Dow, Douglas & Ferencikova, Sonia, 2010. "More than just national cultural distance: Testing new distance scales on FDI in Slovakia," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 46-58, February.
    50. Wang, Chi-Feng & Chen, Li-Yu & Chang, Shao-Chi, 2011. "International diversification and the market value of new product introduction," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 333-347.
    51. Proff, H., 2002. "Business unit strategies between regionalisation and globalisation," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 231-250, April.
    52. Thomas Hutzschenreuter & Johannes C Voll, 2008. "Performance effects of “added cultural distance” in the path of international expansion: the case of German multinational enterprises," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 39(1), pages 53-70, January.
    53. Luo, Yadong & Shenkar, Oded & Nyaw, Mee-Kau, 2002. "Mitigating liabilities of foreignness: Defensive versus offensive approaches," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 283-300.
    54. Miller, Stewart R. & Richards, Malika, 2002. "Liability of foreignness and membership in a regional economic group: Analysis of the European Union," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 323-337.
    55. van Hoorn, André & Maseland, Robbert, 2010. "Cultural differences between East and West Germany after 1991: Communist values versus economic performance?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 791-804, December.
    56. Klaus E Meyer & Mike W Peng, 2005. "Probing theoretically into Central and Eastern Europe: transactions, resources, and institutions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 36(6), pages 600-621, November.
    57. Alan M. Rugman & Alain Verbeke, 2005. "Towards a Theory of Regional Multinationals: A Transaction Cost Economics Approach," Working Papers 2005-04, Indiana University, Kelley School of Business, Department of Business Economics and Public Policy.
    58. Mezias, John M., 2002. "How to identify liabilities of foreignness and assess their effects on multinational corporations," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 265-282.
    59. Alain Verbeke, 2010. "International acquisition success: Social community and dominant logic dimensions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 41(1), pages 38-46, January.
    60. Keith D Brouthers & Lance Eliot Brouthers, 2001. "Explaining the National Cultural Distance Paradox," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 32(1), pages 177-189, March.
    61. Israel Shaked, 1986. "Are Multinational Corporations Safer?," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 17(1), pages 83-106, March.
    62. Gongming Qian & Lee Li & Ji Li & Zhengming Qian, 2008. "Regional diversification and firm performance," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 39(2), pages 197-214, March.
    63. Taco H Reus & Bruce T Lamont, 2009. "The double-edged sword of cultural distance in international acquisitions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 40(8), pages 1298-1316, October.
    64. Drogendijk, Rian & Slangen, Arjen, 2006. "Hofstede, Schwartz, or managerial perceptions? The effects of different cultural distance measures on establishment mode choices by multinational enterprises," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 361-380, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Asimakopoulos, Grigorios & Hernández, Virginia & Whalley, Jason, 2015. "Internationalization of European mobile telecommunication operators: institutional diversity and performance implications," 26th European Regional ITS Conference, Madrid 2015 127122, International Telecommunications Society (ITS).

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:iburev:v:23:y:2014:i:1:p:313-326. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu) or (). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/133/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.