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Liability of foreignness and membership in a regional economic group: Analysis of the European Union

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  • Miller, Stewart R.
  • Richards, Malika

Abstract

This study examines the performance of foreign vs. domestic firms in a regional economic group. In particular, we focus on host country and foreign-owned firms in the European Union. Results provide evidence of a liability of foreignness--foreign-owned firms underperform host country firms. However, there is also evidence that liability of foreignness can vary across countries, and that foreign firms can overcome the liability of foreignness in some host countries, even industrialized ones. The results show the moderating effects of the host country and home country environments on the relative performance of foreign firms. Lastly, the results reveal that foreign-owned banks from highly competitive home countries underperform foreign firms from less competitive home countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Miller, Stewart R. & Richards, Malika, 2002. "Liability of foreignness and membership in a regional economic group: Analysis of the European Union," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 323-337.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:intman:v:8:y:2002:i:3:p:323-337
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    Cited by:

    1. Claessens, Stijn & van Horen, Neeltje, 2012. "Being a foreigner among domestic banks: Asset or liability?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 1276-1290.
    2. Denk, Nikola & Kaufmann, Lutz & Roesch, Jan-Frederik, 2012. "Liabilities of Foreignness Revisited: A Review of Contemporary Studies and Recommendations for Future Research," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 322-334.
    3. Sofka, Wolfgang & Zimmermann, Jörg, 2005. "There's no Place Like Home: A Strategic Framework to Overcome Liability of Foreignness in the German Car Market," ZEW Discussion Papers 05-84, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    4. Sofka, Wolfgang & Zimmermann, Jörg, 2008. "Regional economic stress as moderator of liability of foreignness," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 155-172, June.
    5. Wolfgang Sofka & Jörg Zimmermann, 2007. "Regional Dimensions of Liability of Foreignness: Between a Rock and a Hard Place?," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2007-12, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
    6. repec:spr:manint:v:54:y:2014:i:5:d:10.1007_s11575-014-0220-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Sofka, Wolfgang, 2005. "Global Idea Sourcing: An Empirical Investigation into the Mechanisms Behind the Usage of Foreign Business Sources for Innovation," ZEW Discussion Papers 05-53, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    8. Schmidt, Tobias & Sofka, Wolfgang, 2009. "Liability of foreignness as a barrier to knowledge spillovers: Lost in translation?," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 460-474, December.
    9. Lindorfer, Robert & d'Arcy, Anne & Puck, Jonas, 2016. "Location Decisions and the Liability of Foreignness: Spillover Effects Between Factor Market and Capital Market Strategies," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 222-233.
    10. Alcantara, Lailani Laynesa & Mitsuhashi, Hitoshi, 2012. "Make-or-Break Decisions in Choosing Foreign Direct Investment Locations," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 335-351.
    11. Tobias Schmidt & Wolfgang Sofka, 2005. "Lost in Translation - Empirical Evidence for Liability of Foreignness as Barriers to Knowledge Spillovers," Industrial Organization 0512012, EconWPA.
    12. Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph, 2014. "Against all odds! Why the ‘three darlings’ failed?," MPRA Paper 63383, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. de Jong, Gjalt & van Houten, Jerry, 2014. "The impact of MNE cultural diversity on the internationalization-performance relationship," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 313-326.
    14. Schmidt, Tobias & Sofka, Wolfgang, 2009. "Knowledge sourcing: legitimacy deficits for MNC subsidiaries?," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2009,09, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    15. Elango, B., 2009. "Minimizing effects of 'liability of foreignness': Response strategies of foreign firms in the United States," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 51-62, January.
    16. Ahmad Arslan, 2012. "Impacts of institutional pressures and the strength of market supporting institutions in the host country on the ownership strategy of multinational enterprises: theoretical discussion and proposition," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 16(1), pages 107-124, February.

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