IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Unpacking liability of foreignness: identifying culturally driven external and internal sources of liability for the foreign subsidiary

  • Calhoun, Mikelle A.
Registered author(s):

    Unpacking the box of liability of foreignness, we are forced to realize that there are some costs that can be ascertained and there are other costs that are not subject to objective quantification. Country and cultural differences manifest both in readily discernable and in more tacit societal practices and individual variation. This paper links well-established streams of literature concerning foreign direct investment (FDI), corruption, and cross-cultural differences in an effort to provide a basis for explanation and future testing of certain cultural sources of liability of foreignness. Foreign firms are disadvantaged in comparison to native firms by gaps in understanding caused by cultural variation that impacts both the firm's external and internal environments. In the environment external to the firm, cultural differences are reflected in varying levels of transparency related to the state's institutional practices and procedures. Less transparent markets are associated with higher levels of tacitness, and increased corruption is a significant indicator of the resulting institutional inefficiency. In the internal firm environment, cultural differences manifest in observable behavior differences and less observable values differences of individuals. The degree of the external and internal cultural understanding gap will be determined through comparison of the cultural orientation of the parent firm in its native country with the culture of the host country of the subsidiary. Finally, given that transparency/corruption is the societal embodiment of individual cultural differences, a correlation is expected between corruption levels and value orientations in each subsidiary.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1075425302000728
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of International Management.

    Volume (Year): 8 (2002)
    Issue (Month): 3 ()
    Pages: 301-321

    as
    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eee:intman:v:8:y:2002:i:3:p:301-321
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/601266/description#description

    Order Information: Postal: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/601266/bibliographic
    Web: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/601266/bibliographic

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Shawna O'Grady & Henry W Lane, 1996. "The Psychic Distance Paradox," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 27(2), pages 309-333, June.
    2. Mauro, Paolo, 1995. "Corruption and Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(3), pages 681-712, August.
    3. Isaac Ehrlich & Francis T. Lui, 1999. "Bureaucratic Corruption and Endogenous Economic Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(S6), pages S270-S293, December.
    4. Peter J Buckley & Mark C Casson, 1998. "Analyzing Foreign Market Entry Strategies: Extending the Internalization Approach," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 29(3), pages 539-561, September.
    5. Bryan W Husted, 1999. "Wealth, Culture, and Corruption," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 30(2), pages 339-359, June.
    6. Morck, Randall & Yeung, Bernard, 1991. "Why Investors Value Multinationality," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64(2), pages 165-87, April.
    7. Caves, Richard E, 1971. "International Corporations: The Industrial Economics of Foreign Investment," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 38(149), pages 1-27, February.
    8. James R. Markusen, 1995. "The Boundaries of Multinational Enterprises and the Theory of International Trade," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 169-189, Spring.
    9. La Porta, Rafael, et al, 1997. "Trust in Large Organizations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(2), pages 333-38, May.
    10. William J Bigoness & Gerald L Blakely, 1996. "A Cross-National Study of Managerial Values," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 27(4), pages 739-748, December.
    11. W H Davidson & Donald G McFetridge, 1985. "Key Characteristics in the Choice of International Technology Transfer Mode," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 16(2), pages 5-21, June.
    12. Murphy, Kevin M & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1993. "Why Is Rent-Seeking So Costly to Growth?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(2), pages 409-14, May.
    13. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
    14. Djankov, Simeon & La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei, 2001. "The Regulation of Entry," Working Paper Series rwp01-015, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
    15. Oded Shenkar & Mary Ann von Glinow, 1994. "Paradoxes of Organizational Theory and Research: Using the Case of China to Illustrate National Contingency," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 40(1), pages 56-71, January.
    16. S. Lael Brainard, 1993. "A Simple Theory of Multinational Corporations and Trade with a Trade-Off Between Proximity and Concentration," NBER Working Papers 4269, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Shang-Jin Wei, 2000. "Natural openness and good government," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2411, The World Bank.
    18. Wheeler, David & Mody, Ashoka, 1992. "International investment location decisions : The case of U.S. firms," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1-2), pages 57-76, August.
    19. Ethier, Wilfred J. & Horn, Henrik, 1990. "Managerial control of international firms and patterns of direct investment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1-2), pages 25-45, February.
    20. Grubert, Harry & Mutti, John, 1991. "Taxes, Tariffs and Transfer Pricing in Multinational Corporate Decision Making," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 73(2), pages 285-93, May.
    21. Oxley, Joanne E., 1999. "Institutional environment and the mechanisms of governance: the impact of intellectual property protection on the structure of inter-firm alliances," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 283-309, March.
    22. Dunning, John H, 1979. "Explaining Changing Patterns of International Production: In Defence of the Eclectic Theory," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 41(4), pages 269-95, November.
    23. Stephen Knack & Philip Keefer, 1995. "Institutions And Economic Performance: Cross-Country Tests Using Alternative Institutional Measures," Economics and Politics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(3), pages 207-227, November.
    24. Caves, Richard E, 1974. "Causes of Direct Investment: Foreign Firms' Shares in Canadian and United Kingdom Manufacturing Industries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 56(3), pages 279-93, August.
    25. Chong, Alberto & Calderon, Cesar, 2000. "Institutional Quality and Income Distribution," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 48(4), pages 761-86, July.
    26. Erin Anderson & Hubert Gatignon, 1986. "Modes of Foreign Entry: A Transaction Cost Analysis and Propositions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 17(3), pages 1-26, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:intman:v:8:y:2002:i:3:p:301-321. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.