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Do exits proxy a liability of foreignness?: The case of Japanese exits from the US

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  • Hennart, Jean-François
  • Roehl, Thomas
  • Zeng, Ming

Abstract

Progress in understanding the liability of foreignness requires accurate measurement of this concept. This paper investigates whether exits of foreign affiliates from a given host market provide a reliable measure. We tackle this question by investigating 32 exits of Japanese manufacturing affiliates from the US. Our goal is to assess the extent to which exits are driven by a liability of foreignness and thus whether exits can serve as a reliable measurement of this liability. We find that less than half of our exits are attributable to a liability of foreignness. We conclude that while the data confirm a liability of foreignness for Japanese early entrants into the US, the presence of many other motives for exit suggests caution when inferring such a liability from exits, especially when exit costs are low.

Suggested Citation

  • Hennart, Jean-François & Roehl, Thomas & Zeng, Ming, 2002. "Do exits proxy a liability of foreignness?: The case of Japanese exits from the US," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 241-264.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:intman:v:8:y:2002:i:3:p:241-264
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    Cited by:

    1. Carrère, Céline & Fugazza, Marco & Olarreaga, Marcelo & Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric, 2016. "On the heterogeneous effect of trade on unemployment," CEPR Discussion Papers 11540, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Cunha, P.A.M.F.V., 2005. "The value of cooperation : Studies on the performance outcomes of interorganizational alliances," Other publications TiSEM 59466e6c-1920-461e-b5e9-b, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    3. Denk, Nikola & Kaufmann, Lutz & Roesch, Jan-Frederik, 2012. "Liabilities of Foreignness Revisited: A Review of Contemporary Studies and Recommendations for Future Research," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 322-334.
    4. Reddy, Kotapati Srinivasa, 2016. "Institutional Voids and Tax litigation in Emerging Economies: The verdict of Vodafone cross-border acquisition of Hutchison," MPRA Paper 74264, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2016.
    5. Arjen H. L. Slangen & Jean-François Hennart, 2008. "Do Foreign Greenfields Outperform Foreign Acquisitions or Vice Versa? An Institutional Perspective," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(7), pages 1301-1328, November.
    6. Bailey, Nicholas & Li, Sali, 2015. "Cross-national Distance and FDI: The Moderating Role of Host Country Local Demand," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 267-276.
    7. Sethi, Deepak & Judge, William, 2009. "Reappraising liabilities of foreignness within an integrated perspective of the costs and benefits of doing business abroad," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 404-416, August.
    8. Song, Sangcheol, 2014. "Unfavorable Market Conditions, Institutional and Financial Development, and Exits of Foreign Subsidiaries," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 279-289.
    9. Schmidt, Tobias & Sofka, Wolfgang, 2009. "Liability of foreignness as a barrier to knowledge spillovers: Lost in translation?," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 460-474, December.
    10. Tobias Schmidt & Wolfgang Sofka, 2005. "Lost in Translation - Empirical Evidence for Liability of Foreignness as Barriers to Knowledge Spillovers," Industrial Organization 0512012, EconWPA.
    11. Cuervo-Cazurra, Alvaro, 2007. "Sequence of value-added activities in the multinationalization of developing country firms," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 258-277, September.
    12. de Jong, Gjalt & van Houten, Jerry, 2014. "The impact of MNE cultural diversity on the internationalization-performance relationship," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 313-326.
    13. Schmidt, Tobias & Sofka, Wolfgang, 2009. "Knowledge sourcing: legitimacy deficits for MNC subsidiaries?," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2009,09, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    14. Sangcheol Song, 2014. "Entry mode irreversibility, host market uncertainty, and foreign subsidiary exits," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 455-471, June.
    15. Demirbag, Mehmet & McGuinness, Martina & Akin, Ahmet & Bayyurt, Nizamettin & Basti, Eyup, 2016. "The professional service firm (PSF) in a globalised economy: A study of the efficiency of securities firms in an emerging market," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 1089-1102.
    16. repec:spr:manint:v:51:y:2011:i:6:d:10.1007_s11575-011-0103-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Nguyen, Quyen T.K. & Rugman, Alan M., 2015. "Multinational subsidiary sales and performance in South East Asia," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 115-123.
    18. Elango, B., 2009. "Minimizing effects of 'liability of foreignness': Response strategies of foreign firms in the United States," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 51-62, January.

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