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CO2 emissions abatement in the Nordic carbon-intensive industry – An end-game in sight?


  • Rootzén, Johan
  • Johnsson, Filip


Analysing different future trajectories of technological developments we assess the prospects for Nordic carbon-intensive industries to significantly reduce direct CO2 emissions in the period 2010–2050. This analysis covers petroleum refining, integrated iron and steel production, and cement manufacturing in the four largest Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Our results show that the implementation of currently available abatement measures will not be enough to meet the ambitious emissions reduction targets envisaged for the Year 2050. We show how an extensive deployment of CCS (carbon capture and storage) could result in emissions reductions that are in line with such targets. However, large-scale introduction of CCS would come at a significant price in terms of energy use and the associated flows of captured CO2 would place high requirements on timely planning of infrastructure for the transportation and storage of CO2. Further the assessment highlights the importance of, especially in the absence of successful deployment of CO2 capture, encouraging increased use of biomass in the cement and integrated iron and steel industries, and of promoting the utilisation of alternative raw materials in cement manufacturing to complement efforts to improve energy efficiency.

Suggested Citation

  • Rootzén, Johan & Johnsson, Filip, 2015. "CO2 emissions abatement in the Nordic carbon-intensive industry – An end-game in sight?," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 715-730.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:80:y:2015:i:c:p:715-730
    DOI: 10.1016/

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Napp, T.A. & Gambhir, A. & Hills, T.P. & Florin, N. & Fennell, P.S, 2014. "A review of the technologies, economics and policy instruments for decarbonising energy-intensive manufacturing industries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 616-640.
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    7. Benestad, Olav & Brinck, Lars & Emborg, Lennart & Juul-Kristensen, Bjarne & Kristiansen, Alexander & Meyer, Niels I. & Pulliaine, Kyosti & Selvig, Eivind & Vaittinen, Anssi, 1993. "Energy and environment : Nordic energy scenarios for 2010 and 2030," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 21(12), pages 1225-1236, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Verma, Aman & Olateju, Babatunde & Kumar, Amit, 2015. "Greenhouse gas abatement costs of hydrogen production from underground coal gasification," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 556-568.
    2. Gavenas, Ekaterina & Rosendahl, Knut Einar & Skjerpen, Terje, 2015. "CO2-emissions from Norwegian oil and gas extraction," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 90(P2), pages 1956-1966.
    3. Josifovic, Aleksandar & Roberts, Jennifer J. & Corney, Jonathan & Davies, Bruce & Shipton, Zoe K., 2016. "Reducing the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing through design optimisation of positive displacement pumps," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 115(P1), pages 1216-1233.
    4. Sucic, Boris & Al-Mansour, Fouad & Pusnik, Matevz & Vuk, Tomaz, 2016. "Context sensitive production planning and energy management approach in energy intensive industries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 63-73.
    5. Liu, Xianbing & Fan, Yongbin & Wang, Can, 2017. "An estimation of the effect of carbon pricing for CO2 mitigation in China’s cement industry," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 185(P1), pages 671-686.
    6. repec:eee:rensus:v:77:y:2017:i:c:p:336-343 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Rootzén, Johan & Johnsson, Filip, 2016. "Paying the full price of steel – Perspectives on the cost of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the steel industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 459-469.

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    CO2 abatement; Nordic industry; Refinery; Iron and steel; Cement; Scenario analysis;

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