Greenhouse gas emissions in Norway: do carbon taxes work?
During the last decade, Norway has carried out an ambitious climate policy. The main policy tool is a relatively high carbon tax, which was implemented already in 1991. Data for the development in CO2 emissions since then provide a unique opportunity to evaluate carbon taxes as a policy tool. To reveal the driving forces behind the changes in the three most important climate gases, CO2, methane and N2O in the period 1990-1999, we decompose the actually observed emissions changes, and use an applied general equilibrium simulation to look into the specific effect of carbon taxes. Although total emissions have increased, we find a significant reduction in emissions per unit of GDP over the period due to reduced energy intensity, changes in the energy mix and reduced process emissions. Despite considerable taxes and price increases for some fuel-types, the carbon tax effect has been modest. While the partial effect from lower energy intensity and energy mix changes was a reduction in CO2 emissions of 14 percent, the carbon taxes contributed to only 2 percent reduction. This relatively small effect relates to extensive tax exemptions and relatively inelastic demand in the sectors in which the tax is actually implemented.
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Brita Bye & Karine Nyborg, 1999. "The Welfare Effects of Carbon Policies: Grandfathered Quotas versus Differentiated Taxes," Discussion Papers 261, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
- Sun, J. W., 1999. "The nature of CO2 emission Kuznets curve," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(12), pages 691-694, November.
- Jorgenson, D.W. & Wilcoxen, P.J., 1992.
"Reducing US Carbon Dioxide Emissions: An Assessment of Different Instruments,"
Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers
1590, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Jorgenson, Dale W. & Wilcoxen, Peter J., 1993. "Reducing U.S. carbon dioxide emissions: an assessment of different instruments," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 15(5-6), pages 491-520.
- Alan S. Manne & Richard G. Richels, 1991. "Global CO2 Emission Reductions - the Impacts of Rising Energy Costs," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1), pages 87-108.
- Schipper, Lee & Murtishaw, Scott & Khrushch, Marta & Ting, Michael & Karbuz, Sohbet & Unander, Fridtjof, 2001. "Carbon emissions from manufacturing energy use in 13 IEA countries: long-term trends through 1995," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(9), pages 667-688, July.
- Thomas M. Selden & Anne S. Forrest & James E. Lockhart, 1999. "Analyzing the Reductions in U.S. Air Pollution Emissions: 1970 to 1990," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 75(1), pages 1-21.
- Annegrete Bruvoll & Taran Fæhn & Birger Strøm, 2003.
"Quantifying Central Hypotheses on Environmental Kuznets Curves for a Rich Economy: A Computable General Equilibrium Study,"
341, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
- Annegrete Bruvoll & Taran Fæhn & Birger Str¯m, 2003. "Quantifying Central Hypotheses on Environmental Kuznets Curves for a Rich Economy: A Computable General Equilibrium Study," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 50(2), pages 149-173, 05.
- Sutherland, Ronald J, 1998. "The impact of potential climate change commitments on six industries in the United States," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(10), pages 765-776, August.
- Murtishaw, Scott & Schipper, Lee, 2001. "Disaggregated analysis of US energy consumption in the 1990s: evidence of the effects of the internet and rapid economic growth," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(15), pages 1335-1356, December.
- Jørgen Aasness & Torstein Bye & Hans Terje Mysen, 1995.
"Welfare Effects of Emission Taxes in Norway,"
148, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
- Hoel, Michael, 1994.
"Should a Carbon Tax be Differentiated Across Sectors?,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
1066, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Hoel, Michael, 1996. "Should a carbon tax be differentiated across sectors?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 17-32, January.
- Hoel, M., 1993. "Should a Carbon Tax Be Differentiated Across Sectors?," Memorandum 09/1993, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
- Goulder, Lawrence H. & Schneider, Stephen H., 1999. "Induced technological change and the attractiveness of CO2 abatement policies," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(3-4), pages 211-253, August.
- Bye, Brita, 2000. "Environmental Tax Reform and Producer Foresight: An Intertemporal Computable General Equilibrium Analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 719-752, November.
- Annegrete Bruvoll & Hege Medin, 2000.
"Factoring the environmental Kuznets curve Evidence from Norway,"
275, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
- Annegrete Bruvoll & Hege Medin, 2003. "Factors Behind the Environmental Kuznets Curve. A Decomposition of the Changes in Air Pollution," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 24(1), pages 27-48, January.
- Anne Brendemoen & Haakon Vennemo, 1994. "A Climate Treaty and the Norwegian Economy: A CGE Assessment," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1), pages 77-93.
- Liaskas, K. & Mavrotas, G. & Mandaraka, M. & Diakoulaki, D., 2000. "Decomposition of industrial CO2 emissions:: The case of European Union," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 383-394, August.
- Paul Ekins & Stefan Speck, 1999. "Competitiveness and Exemptions From Environmental Taxes in Europe," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 13(4), pages 369-396, June.
- van der Zwaan, B. C. C. & Gerlagh, R. & G. & Klaassen & Schrattenholzer, L., 2002. "Endogenous technological change in climate change modelling," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 1-19, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:32:y:2004:i:4:p:493-505. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.