IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Greenhouse gas emissions in Norway Do carbon taxes work?

During the last decade, Norway has carried out an ambitious climate policy. The main policy tool is a relatively high carbon tax, which was implemented already in 1991. Data for the development in CO2 emissions since then provide a unique opportunity to evaluate carbon taxes as a policy tool. To reveal the driving forces behind the changes in the three most important climate gases, CO2, methane and N2O in the period 1990-1999, we decompose the actually observed emissions changes, and use an applied general equilibrium simulation to look into the specific effect of carbon taxes. Although total emissions have increased, we find a significant reduction in emissions per unit of GDP over the period due to reduced energy intensity, changes in the energy mix and reduced process emissions. Despite considerable taxes and price increases for some fuel-types, the carbon tax effect has been modest. While the partial effect from lower energy intensity and energy mix changes was a reduction in CO2 emissions of 14 percent, the carbon taxes contributed to only 2 percent reduction. This relatively small effect relates to extensive tax exemptions and relatively inelastic demand in the sectors in which the tax is actually implemented.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.ssb.no/a/publikasjoner/pdf/DP/dp337.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Research Department of Statistics Norway in its series Discussion Papers with number 337.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: Dec 2002
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ssb:dispap:337
Contact details of provider: Postal: P.O.Box 8131 Dep, N-0033 Oslo, Norway
Phone: (+47) 21 09 00 00
Fax: (+47) 21 09 49 73
Web page: http://www.ssb.no/en/
Email:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Annegrete Bruvoll & Taran Fæhn & Birger Strøm, 2003. "Quantifying Central Hypotheses on Environmental Kuznets Curves for a Rich Economy: A Computable General Equilibrium Study," Discussion Papers 341, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
  2. Hoel, Michael, 1996. "Should a carbon tax be differentiated across sectors?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 17-32, January.
  3. Thomas M. Selden & Anne S. Forrest & James E. Lockhart, 1999. "Analyzing the Reductions in U.S. Air Pollution Emissions: 1970 to 1990," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 75(1), pages 1-21.
  4. Schipper, Lee & Murtishaw, Scott & Khrushch, Marta & Ting, Michael & Karbuz, Sohbet & Unander, Fridtjof, 2001. "Carbon emissions from manufacturing energy use in 13 IEA countries: long-term trends through 1995," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(9), pages 667-688, July.
  5. Aasness, Jorgen & Bye, Torstein & Mysen, Hans Terje, 1996. "Welfare effects of emission taxes in Norway," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 335-346, October.
  6. Jorgenson, Dale W. & Wilcoxen, Peter J., 1993. "Reducing U.S. carbon dioxide emissions: an assessment of different instruments," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 15(5-6), pages 491-520.
  7. Bye, Brita, 2000. "Environmental Tax Reform and Producer Foresight: An Intertemporal Computable General Equilibrium Analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 719-752, November.
  8. Annegrete Bruvoll & Hege Medin, 2000. "Factoring the environmental Kuznets curve Evidence from Norway," Discussion Papers 275, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
  9. Brita Bye & Karine Nyborg, 1999. "The Welfare Effects of Carbon Policies: Grandfathered Quotas versus Differentiated Taxes," Discussion Papers 261, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
  10. Goulder, Lawrence H. & Schneider, Stephen H., 1999. "Induced technological change and the attractiveness of CO2 abatement policies," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(3-4), pages 211-253, August.
  11. Anne Brendemoen & Haakon Vennemo, 1994. "A Climate Treaty and the Norwegian Economy: A CGE Assessment," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1), pages 77-93.
  12. Paul Ekins & Stefan Speck, 1999. "Competitiveness and Exemptions From Environmental Taxes in Europe," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 13(4), pages 369-396, June.
  13. Murtishaw, Scott & Schipper, Lee, 2001. "Disaggregated analysis of US energy consumption in the 1990s: evidence of the effects of the internet and rapid economic growth," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(15), pages 1335-1356, December.
  14. van der Zwaan, B. C. C. & Gerlagh, R. & G. & Klaassen & Schrattenholzer, L., 2002. "Endogenous technological change in climate change modelling," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 1-19, January.
  15. Liaskas, K. & Mavrotas, G. & Mandaraka, M. & Diakoulaki, D., 2000. "Decomposition of industrial CO2 emissions:: The case of European Union," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 383-394, August.
  16. Sutherland, Ronald J, 1998. "The impact of potential climate change commitments on six industries in the United States," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(10), pages 765-776, August.
  17. Alan S. Manne & Richard G. Richels, 1991. "Global CO2 Emission Reductions - the Impacts of Rising Energy Costs," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1), pages 87-108.
  18. Sun, J. W., 1999. "The nature of CO2 emission Kuznets curve," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(12), pages 691-694, November.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ssb:dispap:337. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (J Bruusgaard)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.