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Trilemma stability and international macroeconomic archetypes

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  • Popper, Helen
  • Mandilaras, Alex
  • Bird, Graham

Abstract

This paper uses the simple geometry of the classic, open-economy trilemma to introduce a new gauge of the stability of international macroeconomic arrangements. The new stability gauge reflects the simultaneity of a country's choices of exchange rate fixity, financial openness, and monetary sovereignty. So, the new gauge is bounded and correspondingly non-Gaussian. We use the new stability gauge in nonlinear panel estimates to examine the post-Bretton Woods period, and we find that trilemma policy stability is linked to official holdings of foreign exchange reserves in low income countries. We also find that the combination of fixed exchange rates and financial market openness is the most stable arrangement within the trilemma; and middle-income countries have less stable trilemma arrangements than either low or high-income countries. The paper also characterizes international macroeconomic arrangements in terms of their semblance to definitive policy archetypes; and, it uses the trilemma constraint to provide a new gauge of monetary sovereignty.

Suggested Citation

  • Popper, Helen & Mandilaras, Alex & Bird, Graham, 2013. "Trilemma stability and international macroeconomic archetypes," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 181-193.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eecrev:v:64:y:2013:i:c:p:181-193
    DOI: 10.1016/j.euroecorev.2013.08.006
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Mandilaras, Alex S., 2015. "The international policy trilemma in the post-Bretton Woods era," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 18-32.
    2. Diana Lima & Vasco Gabriel & Ioannis Lazopoulos, 2021. "Institutional Arrangements and Inflation Bias: A Dynamic Heterogeneous Panel Approach," Working Papers w202106, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    3. Herwartz, Helmut & Roestel, Jan, 2017. "Mundell’s trilemma: Policy trade-offs within the middle ground," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 1-13.
    4. Aizenman, Joshua & Ito, Hiro, 2012. "Trilemma policy convergence patterns and output volatility," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 269-285.
    5. Ligonniere, Samuel, 2018. "Trilemma, dilemma and global players," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 20-39.
    6. Steiner, Andreas, 2017. "Central banks and macroeconomic policy choices: Relaxing the trilemma," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 283-299.
    7. Choi, Jae Hoon, 2020. "Capital controls and foreign exchange market intervention," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 101(C).
    8. Aizenman, Joshua & Ito, Hiro, 2014. "Living with the trilemma constraint: Relative trilemma policy divergence, crises, and output losses for developing countries," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(PA), pages 28-51.
    9. Shen, Pei-Long & Li, Wen & Wang, Xiao-Ting & Su, Chi-Wei, 2015. "Contagion effect of the European financial crisis on China's stock markets: Interdependence and pure contagion," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 193-199.
    10. Steiner, Andreas & Steinkamp, Sven & Westermann, Frank, 2019. "Exit strategies, capital flight and speculative attacks: Europe's version of the trilemma," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 83-96.
    11. Aizenman, Joshua, 2019. "A modern reincarnation of Mundell-Fleming's trilemma," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 444-454.
    12. Parsley, David & Popper, Helen, 2020. "Return comovement," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 112(C).
    13. Helder Ferreira de Mendonça & Igor da Silva Veiga, 2017. "The open economy trilemma in Latin America: A three-decade analysis," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(2), pages 135-154, June.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Trilemma; Foreign Exchange Rate Regimes; International Reserves; Financial openness; Monetary sovereignty;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D72 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Political Processes: Rent-seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
    • H11 - Public Economics - - Structure and Scope of Government - - - Structure and Scope of Government
    • C78 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory - - - Bargaining Theory; Matching Theory

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