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A Modern History of Exchange Rate Arrangements: Parallel Markets and Dual and Multiple Exchange Rates

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  • Reinhart, Carmen

Abstract

There are cases where the parallel (or secondary) exchange rate applies only to a few limited transactions. An example is the “switch pound” in the United Kingdom during September 1950 through April 1967. However, it is not unusual for dual or parallel markets (legal or otherwise) to account for the lion’s share of transactions with the official rate being little more than symbolic. The official rate typically diminishes in importance when the gap between the official and market-determined rate widens. To provide a sense of the comparative relevance of the dual or parallel market we proceed along two complimentary dimensions. First, we include a qualitative description in the country-specific chronologies of what transactions take place in the official market versus the secondary market. Second, we develop a quantitative measure of the potential size of the leakages into dual or parallel exchange markets. We classify episodes where there are dual/parallel markets into three tiers according to the level (in percent) of the parallel market premium: low (below 10 percent), moderate (10 percent or above but below 50), and high (50 percent and above). For the episodes of dual/parallel markets, we provide information about which category each episode falls in (by calculating the average premium for the duration of the episode). This is background material for "The Modern History of Exchange Rate Arrangements: A Reinterpretation"

Suggested Citation

  • Reinhart, Carmen, 2002. "A Modern History of Exchange Rate Arrangements: Parallel Markets and Dual and Multiple Exchange Rates," MPRA Paper 13194, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:13194
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Flood, Robert P. & Rose, Andrew K., 1995. "Fixing exchange rates A virtual quest for fundamentals," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 3-37, August.
    2. Guillermo A. Calvo & Carmen M. Reinhart, 2002. "Fear of Floating," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(2), pages 379-408.
    3. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2004. "The Modern History of Exchange Rate Arrangements: A Reinterpretation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(1), pages 1-48.
    4. Masson, Paul R., 2001. "Exchange rate regime transitions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 571-586, April.
    5. Baxter, Marianne & Stockman, Alan C., 1989. "Business cycles and the exchange-rate regime : Some international evidence," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 377-400, May.
    6. Jonathan David Ostry & Anne Marie Gulde & Atish R. Ghosh & Holger C. Wolf, 1995. "Does the Nominal Exchange Rate Regime Matter?," IMF Working Papers 95/121, International Monetary Fund.
    7. Dedola, Luca & Leduc, Sylvain, 2001. "Why Is the Business-Cycle Behaviour of Fundamentals Alike across Exchange-Rate Regimes?," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 6(4), pages 401-419, October.
    8. Glick, R., 2000. "Fixed or Floating: Is It Still Possible to Manage in the Middle?," Papers pb00-02, Economisch Institut voor het Midden en Kleinbedrijf-.
    9. Peter Wickham, 2002. "Do “Flexible” Exchange Rates of Developing Countries Behave Like the Floating Exchange Rates of Industrialized Countries?," IMF Working Papers 02/82, International Monetary Fund.
    10. Frankel, Jeffrey A. & Rose, Andrew K., 1996. "Currency crashes in emerging markets: An empirical treatment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3-4), pages 351-366, November.
    11. Agathe Cote, "undated". "Exchange Rate Volatility and Trade: A Survey," Staff Working Papers 94-5, Bank of Canada.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Exchange rate; dual markets; parallel markets; capital controls; exports; history;

    JEL classification:

    • F32 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Current Account Adjustment; Short-term Capital Movements
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange

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