IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/ecosys/v33y2009i1p45-59.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Skill shortages and labor market outcomes in Central Europe

Author

Listed:
  • Brixiova, Zuzana
  • Li, Wenli
  • Yousef, Tarik

Abstract

The new Central European members of the EU have been characterized by low employment rates, especially among unskilled workers, despite the GDP recoveries and large private sector shares in output and employment. Evidence points at skill shortages in Central Europe as a key impediment to faster labor reallocation and convergence to the EU-15 employment structures. In this paper, we develop a simple model of labor reallocation with transaction costs and show how skill shortages can inhibit firm creation and increase income inequality. We use the model to examine the impact of training subsidies and their financing on skill acquisition and start-ups of new private firms, and show that the positive effect of subsidies would be mostly offset by high wage taxes. Shifting financing from wage to consumption taxes would improve incentives for workers' training and firm start-ups, while relying more on income taxes could reduce the income gap between workers and entrepreneurs.

Suggested Citation

  • Brixiova, Zuzana & Li, Wenli & Yousef, Tarik, 2009. "Skill shortages and labor market outcomes in Central Europe," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 45-59, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecosys:v:33:y:2009:i:1:p:45-59
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0939-3625(08)00068-X
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Daniel Münich & Jan Svejnar & Katherine Terrell, 2005. "Returns to Human Capital Under The Communist Wage Grid and During the Transition to a Market Economy," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(1), pages 100-123, February.
    2. Faggio, Giulia, 2007. "Job destruction, job creation and unemployment in transition countries: what can we learn?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 19716, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    3. Tan, Hong & Savchenko, Yevgeniya & Gimpelson, Vladimir & Kapeliushnikov, Rostislav & Lukiyanova, Anna, 2007. "Skills Shortages and Training in Russian Enterprises," IZA Discussion Papers 2751, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    4. Wenli Li & Zuzana Brixiova & Tarik Yousef, 1999. "Skill Acquisition and Firm Creation in Transition Economies," IMF Working Papers 99/130, International Monetary Fund.
    5. Konings, Jozef & Lehmann, Hartmut & Schaffer, Mark E., 1996. "Job creation and job destruction in a transition economy: Ownership, firm size, and gross job flows in Polish manufacturing 1988-1991," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 299-317, October.
    6. Simeon Djankov & Yingyi Qian & Gerard Roland & Ekaterina Zhuravskaya, 2007. "What Makes a Successful Entrepreneur? Evidence from Brazil," Working Papers w0104, Center for Economic and Financial Research (CEFIR).
    7. Hartmut Lehmann & Patrick Paul Walsh, 1999. "Gradual restructuring and Structural Unemployment in Poland. A Legacy of Central Planning," LICOS Discussion Papers 7899, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
    8. Commander, Simon & Köll?, János, 2004. "The Changing Demand for Skills: Evidence from the Transition," IZA Discussion Papers 1073, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. Eric Bartelsman & Stefano Scarpetta & Fabiano Schivardi, 2005. "Comparative analysis of firm demographics and survival: evidence from micro-level sources in OECD countries," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 14(3), pages 365-391, June.
    10. Kluve, Jochen & Lehmann, Hartmut & Schmidt, Christoph M., 1999. "Active Labor Market Policies in Poland: Human Capital Enhancement, Stigmatization, or Benefit Churning?," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 61-89, March.
    11. Stepán Jurajda & Katherine Terrell, 2003. "Job growth in early transition: Comparing two paths ," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 11(2), pages 291-320, June.
    12. Piero Esposito & Robert Stehrer, 2009. "The sector bias of skill-biased technical change and the rising skill premium in transition economies," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 36(3), pages 351-364, August.
    13. Jan J. Rutkowski & Stefano Scarpetta, 2005. "Enhancing Job Opportunities : Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7408.
    14. Byeongju Jeong & Michal Kejak & Viatcheslav Vinogradov, 2008. "Changing composition of human capital," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 16(2), pages 247-271, April.
    15. Solon, Gary R, 1985. "Work Incentive Effects of Taxing Unemployment Benefits," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(2), pages 295-306, March.
    16. Richard B. Freeman & Remco Oostendorp, 2000. "Wages Around the World: Pay Across Occupations and Countries," NBER Working Papers 8058, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Lopez-Garcia, Paloma, 2006. "Business environment and labor market outcomes in Europe and Central Asia countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3885, The World Bank.
    18. John Beirne & Nauro F. Campos, 2007. "Educational inputs and outcomes before the transition from communism ," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 15(1), pages 57-76, March.
    19. Jan Rutkowski, 1996. "High skills pay off: the changing wage structure during economic transition in Poland," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 4(1), pages 89-112, May.
    20. Earle, John S. & Sakova, Zuzana, 1999. "Entrepreneurship from Scratch: Lessons on the Entry Decision into Self-Employment from Transition Economies," IZA Discussion Papers 79, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Brixiová, Zuzana & Ncube, Mthuli & Bicaba, Zorobabel, 2015. "Skills and Youth Entrepreneurship in Africa: Analysis with Evidence from Swaziland," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 11-26.
    2. Spiros Bougheas & Raymond Riezman, "undated". "Market Entry Costs, Underemployment and International Trade," Discussion Papers 10/18, University of Nottingham, GEP.
    3. Albiol, Judit & Díaz Serrano, Lluís & Teruel, Mercedes, 2014. "Is Self-employment a Way to Escape from Skill Mismatches?," Working Papers 2072/247652, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
    4. Zuzana Brixiova, 2009. "Labour Market Flexibility In Estonia: What More Can Be Done?," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp964, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    5. Albiol Sanchez, Judit & Diaz-Serrano, Luis & Teruel, Graciela, 2015. "Is Self-employment a Way to Escape from Skill Mismatches?," IZA Discussion Papers 9008, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. World Bank, 2011. "Challenges to Enterprise Performance in the Face of the Financial Crisis : Eastern Europe and Central Asia," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2316.
    7. repec:hur:ijaraf:v:7:y:2017:i:3:p:6-13 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Zuzana Brixiova & Mthuli Ncube, 2014. "Working Paper 204 - Skills and Youth Entrepreneurship in Africa: Analysis with Evidence from Swaziland," Working Paper Series 2136, African Development Bank.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecosys:v:33:y:2009:i:1:p:45-59. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/osteide.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.