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Multiple job holdings among dairy farm families in New York and Ontario

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  • Weersink, Alfons
  • Nicholson, Charles
  • Weerhewa, Jeeveka

Abstract

Previous empirical studies of multiple job holding have tended to focus on the characteristics of those obtaining off-fann employment and the factors affecting the hours supplied to those obtaining off-farm activities. None of these studies have explicitly addressed the reasons behind the decision to seek off-farm employment. Neither have they been able to examine in-depth the important issue of how this major component of the farm sector responds to alternative policies, since most studies have used cross-sectional data for a given region. A comparison between countries would permit the analysis of how multiple job holding responds to differing government policies. The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons for and factors affecting multiple job holdings of dairy farm families in neighboring regions of two counties, United States and Canada. The bordering regions of New York and Ontario have similar geographic conditions but significantly different farm support and social service policies. The results indicate the importance of farm income on why people work off the farm and provide evidence of multiple job holding as a flexible mechanism for coping with changes in the economic environment facing the household. For operators, the driving characteristics influencing off-farm labor participation is the farm's financial position. The supply-managed milk marketing system ensures higher and more stable returns for Ontario dairy farm labor. In contrast, it is family demographics, educational level and social support policy that appears to largely influence spousal off-farm employment decisions. Free medical care in Ontario lowers the reservation wage for household members. The effect of these farm and social support policies on the relative returns to labor in agriculture and non-farm employment explains the lower participation rate and hours supplied in off-farm work by both operators, and hours supplied in off-farm work by both operators and spouses in Ontari
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  • Weersink, Alfons & Nicholson, Charles & Weerhewa, Jeeveka, 1998. "Multiple job holdings among dairy farm families in New York and Ontario," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 18(2), pages 127-143, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:agecon:v:18:y:1998:i:2:p:127-143
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    1. Bhaumik, Sumon Kumar & Dimova, Ralitza & Nugent, Jeffrey B., 2011. "Off-farm labor supply and labor markets in rapidly changing circumstances: Bulgaria during transition," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 378-389, September.
    2. Bjornsen, Marte, 2002. "Probabilistic modelling of the joint labour decisions of husband and wife in farm households," ERSA conference papers ersa02p513, European Regional Science Association.
    3. Woldehanna, Tassew & Lansink, Alfons Oude & Peerlings, Jack, 2000. "Off-farm work decisions on Dutch cash crop farms and the 1992 and Agenda 2000 CAP reforms," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 22(2), pages 163-171, March.
    4. Donnellan, Trevor & Hennessy, Thia, 2012. "Defining a theoretical model of farm households’ labour allocation decisions," Factor Markets Working Papers 140, Centre for European Policy Studies.
    5. Sumon Kumar Bhaumik & Ralitza Dimova & Jeffrey B. Nugent, 2006. "Pulls, Pushes and Entitlement Failures in Labor Markets: Does the State of Development Matter?," CEDI Discussion Paper Series 06-07, Centre for Economic Development and Institutions(CEDI), Brunel University.
    6. Bjornsen, Hild-Marte, 2002. "Probabilistic Modelling of the Joint Labour Decisions of Husband and Wife in Farm Households," Workshop on the Farm Household-Firm Unit: Its Importance in Agriculture and Implications for Statistics, April 12-13,2002, Wye Campus, Imperial College 15717, International Agricultural Policy Reform and Adjustment Project (IAPRAP).
    7. Begin, Rosemarie & Tamini, Lota D. & Doyon, Maurice, 2014. "L'effet du travail hors-ferme sur l'efficacité technique des fermes laitières québécoises: un modèle intégrant les biais de sélection sur les observables et inobservables," Working Papers 187233, University of Laval, Center for Research on the Economics of the Environment, Agri-food, Transports and Energy (CREATE).
    8. Bjørnsen, Hild-Marte & Biørn, Erik, 2006. "The Joint Labour Decisions Of Farm Couples: A Censored Response Analysis Of On-Farm And Off-Farm Work," Memorandum 05/2006, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
    9. Woldehanna, Tassew & Lansink, Alfons Oude & Peerlings, Jack, 2000. "Off-farm work decisions on Dutch cash crop farms and the 1992 and Agenda 2000 CAP reforms," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 22(2), pages 163-171, March.
    10. Rosemarie Bégin & Lota D. Tamini & Maurice Doyon, 2014. "L'effet du travail hors-ferme sur l'efficacité technique des fermes laitières québécoises: un modèle intégrant les biais de sélection sur les observables et inobservables," Cahiers de recherche CREATE 2014-9, CREATE.
    11. Bojnec, Stefan & Ferto, Imre, 2011. "Impact of Off-farm Income on Farm Efficiency in Slovenia," 2011 International Congress, August 30-September 2, 2011, Zurich, Switzerland 114258, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    12. Barrett, Christopher B. & Reardon, Thomas, 2000. "Asset, Activity, And Income Diversification Among African Agriculturalists: Some Practical Issues," Working Papers 14734, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
    13. Abdul-Salam, Yakubu & Roberts, Deborah, 2018. "Determinants of off-farm work and its effect on agricultural input intensity," 92nd Annual Conference, April 16-18, 2018, Warwick University, Coventry, UK 273486, Agricultural Economics Society.
    14. Thia Hennessy & Jasmina Behan & Tahir Rehman, 2005. "The Implications of Common Agricultural Policy Reform for Irish Farmers’ Participation in off-farm Labour Markets," Working Papers 0504, Rural Economy and Development Programme,Teagasc.
    15. Möllers, Judith, 2006. "Außerlandwirtschaftliche Diversifikation im Transformationsprozzess: Diversifikationsentscheidungen und -strategien ländlicher Haushalte in Slowenien und Mazedonien," Studies on the Agricultural and Food Sector in Transition Economies, Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO), volume 35, number 92495.
    16. Lien, Gudbrand D. & Kumbhakar, Subal C. & Hardaker, J. Brian, 2008. "Determinants Of Part-Time Farming And Its Effect On Farm Productivity And Efficiency," 107th Seminar, January 30-February 1, 2008, Sevilla, Spain 6701, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    17. Donnellan, Trevor & Hennessy, Thia C., 2012. "The Labour Allocation Decisions of Farm Households: Defining a theoretical model," Working papers 137021, Factor Markets, Centre for European Policy Studies.

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