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The Time-Varying Effects Of Permanent And Transitory Shocks To Real Output

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  • Keating, John W.
  • Valcarcel, Victor J.

Abstract

A time-varying-parameter VAR for real output growth and inflation is estimated with annual U.S. series dating back to 1870. Volatility for both variables rises quickly with World War I and its aftermath, stays high until the end of World War II, and drops rapidly until the 1960s. This Postwar Moderation yields the largest decline in volatilities, surpassing the Great Moderation. Conditional on temporary shocks, inflation and output growth are positively correlated. Our model implies that aggregate demand played a key role in inflation volatility fluctuations. Conversely, the two variables are negatively correlated conditional on permanent shocks. Our model suggests that aggregate supply played an important role in output volatility fluctuations. Most impulse responses support an aggregate supply interpretation for permanent shocks. However, before World War I, a permanent increase in output raised the price level at longer horizons, and these responses are frequently statistically significant. This evidence supports the hypothesis that aggregate demand had a long-run positive effect on output during the pre–World War I period.

Suggested Citation

  • Keating, John W. & Valcarcel, Victor J., 2015. "The Time-Varying Effects Of Permanent And Transitory Shocks To Real Output," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 19(3), pages 477-507, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:macdyn:v:19:y:2015:i:03:p:477-507_00
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Clark, Todd E. & Davig, Troy, 2011. "Decomposing the declining volatility of long-term inflation expectations," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 981-999, July.
    2. Luca Gambetti & Jordi Galí, 2009. "On the Sources of the Great Moderation," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 1(1), pages 26-57, January.
    3. Nason James M. & Smith Gregor W, 2008. "Great Moderation(s) and US Interest Rates: Unconditional Evidence," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 8(1), pages 1-33, November.
    4. Peter M. Summers, 2005. "What caused the Great Moderation? : some cross-country evidence," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q III, pages 5-32.
    5. Faust, Jon & Leeper, Eric M, 1997. "When Do Long-Run Identifying Restrictions Give Reliable Results?," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 15(3), pages 345-353, July.
    6. Keating, John & Valcarcel, Victor, 2012. "Greater moderations," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(2), pages 168-171.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Tian, Shuairu & Hamori, Shigeyuki, 2016. "Time-varying price shock transmission and volatility spillover in foreign exchange, bond, equity, and commodity markets: Evidence from the United States," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 163-171.
    2. repec:eee:ecosys:v:41:y:2017:i:1:p:98-108 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Keating, John & Valcarcel, Victor, 2012. "Greater moderations," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(2), pages 168-171.
    4. Keating, John W. & Valcarcel, Victor J., 2017. "What's so great about the Great Moderation?," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 115-142.
    5. John W. Keating & Victor J. Valcarcel, 2012. "What's so Great about the Great Moderation? A Multi-Country Investigation of Time-Varying Volatilities of Output Growth and Inflation," WORKING PAPERS SERIES IN THEORETICAL AND APPLIED ECONOMICS 201204, University of Kansas, Department of Economics.
    6. Anping Chen & Nicolaas Groenewold, 2017. "China’s ‘New Normal’: Is the growth slowdown demand- or supply-driven?," Economics Discussion / Working Papers 17-18, The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
    7. Valcarcel, Victor J., 2012. "The dynamic adjustments of stock prices to inflation disturbances," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 117-144.
    8. Liu, Xueyong & An, Haizhong & Li, Huajiao & Chen, Zhihua & Feng, Sida & Wen, Shaobo, 2017. "Features of spillover networks in international financial markets: Evidence from the G20 countries," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 479(C), pages 265-278.
    9. Valcarcel, Victor J. & Wohar, Mark E., 2013. "Changes in the oil price-inflation pass-through," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 24-42.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E30 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
    • E65 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Studies of Particular Policy Episodes

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