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The Time Varying Effects of Permanent and Transitory Shocks to Real Output

Author

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  • John W. Keating

    (Department of Economics, The University of Kansas)

  • Victor J. Valcarcel

    (Department of Economics, Texas Tech University)

Abstract

Annual changes in volatility of U.S. real output growth and inflation are documented in data from 1870 to 2009 using a time varying parameter VAR model. Both volatilities rise quickly with World War I and its aftermath, stay relatively high until the end of World War II and drop rapidly until the mid to late-1960s. This Postwar Moderation represents the largest decline in volatilities in our sample, much greater than the Great Moderation that began in the 1980s. Fluctuations in output growth volatility are primarily associated with permanent shocks to output while fluctuations in inflation volatility are primarily accounted for by temporary shocks to output. Conditioning on temporary shocks, inflation and output growth are positively correlated. This finding and the ensuing impulse responses are consistent with an aggregate demand interpretation for the temporary shocks. Our model suggests aggregate demand played a key role in the changes in inflation volatility. Conversely, the two variables are negatively correlated when conditioning on permanent shocks, suggesting that these disturbances are associated primarily with aggregate supply. Our results suggest that aggregate supply played an important role in output volatility fluctuations. Most of the impulse responses support an aggregate supply interpretation of permanent shocks. However, for the pre-World War I period, we find that at longer horizons a permanent increase in output is generally associated with an increase in the price level that is frequently statistically significant. This evidence suggests aggregate demand may have had a long-run positive effect on output during the pre-World War I period.

Suggested Citation

  • John W. Keating & Victor J. Valcarcel, 2012. "The Time Varying Effects of Permanent and Transitory Shocks to Real Output," WORKING PAPERS SERIES IN THEORETICAL AND APPLIED ECONOMICS 201203, University of Kansas, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:kan:wpaper:201203
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    File URL: http://www2.ku.edu/~kuwpaper/2009Papers/201203.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Clark, Todd E. & Davig, Troy, 2011. "Decomposing the declining volatility of long-term inflation expectations," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 981-999, July.
    2. Nason James M. & Smith Gregor W, 2008. "Great Moderation(s) and US Interest Rates: Unconditional Evidence," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 8(1), pages 1-33, November.
    3. Luca Gambetti & Jordi Galí, 2009. "On the Sources of the Great Moderation," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 1(1), pages 26-57, January.
    4. Faust, Jon & Leeper, Eric M, 1997. "When Do Long-Run Identifying Restrictions Give Reliable Results?," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 15(3), pages 345-353, July.
    5. Keating, John & Valcarcel, Victor, 2012. "Greater moderations," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(2), pages 168-171.
    6. Peter M. Summers, 2005. "What caused the Great Moderation? : some cross-country evidence," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q III, pages 5-32.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Tian, Shuairu & Hamori, Shigeyuki, 2016. "Time-varying price shock transmission and volatility spillover in foreign exchange, bond, equity, and commodity markets: Evidence from the United States," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 163-171.
    2. repec:eee:ecosys:v:41:y:2017:i:1:p:98-108 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Keating, John & Valcarcel, Victor, 2012. "Greater moderations," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(2), pages 168-171.
    4. Keating, John W. & Valcarcel, Victor J., 2017. "What's so great about the Great Moderation?," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 115-142.
    5. John W. Keating & Victor J. Valcarcel, 2012. "What's so Great about the Great Moderation? A Multi-Country Investigation of Time-Varying Volatilities of Output Growth and Inflation," WORKING PAPERS SERIES IN THEORETICAL AND APPLIED ECONOMICS 201204, University of Kansas, Department of Economics.
    6. Valcarcel, Victor J., 2012. "The dynamic adjustments of stock prices to inflation disturbances," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 117-144.
    7. Liu, Xueyong & An, Haizhong & Li, Huajiao & Chen, Zhihua & Feng, Sida & Wen, Shaobo, 2017. "Features of spillover networks in international financial markets: Evidence from the G20 countries," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 479(C), pages 265-278.
    8. Valcarcel, Victor J. & Wohar, Mark E., 2013. "Changes in the oil price-inflation pass-through," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 24-42.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    The Great Moderation; stochastic volatility; permanent-transitory decompositions; Markov Chain Monte Carlo; structural vector autoregressions.;

    JEL classification:

    • E30 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
    • E65 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Studies of Particular Policy Episodes

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