IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/bla/obuest/v82y2020i5p988-1016.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Measuring Smile Curves in Global Value Chains

Author

Listed:
  • Bo Meng
  • Ming Ye
  • Shang‐Jin Wei

Abstract

The logic of the ‘smile curve’ in the context of global value chains (GVCs) has been widely used in case studies of individual firms, but rarely identified at the country‐industry level by using real data. This paper puts forward a proposal, based on an inter‐country input–output model, to consistently measure both the gain of value added and the position of countries and industries when they join GVCs. This allows for better identification and mapping of economy‐wide smile curves in a given conceptual value chain. Using the World Input‐Output Tables, we identify the Information and Communications Technology exports‐related smile curves for China and the United States (US), which provide an intuitive and visual representation of who gains value added and jobs through joining GVCs, and to what extent. Further insight into the distributional implications of GVC expansion, based on our analysis of labour markets for China and the US, provides a strong support for the so‐called ‘Paradoxical Pair of Concerns’ between developed and developing countries. Our empirical results show that gains through joining GVCs may vary greatly across different skill levels of labour domestically, a fact that has, at least in part, been a driver of the backlash against globalization and the rise of trade protectionism.

Suggested Citation

  • Bo Meng & Ming Ye & Shang‐Jin Wei, 2020. "Measuring Smile Curves in Global Value Chains," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 82(5), pages 988-1016, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:obuest:v:82:y:2020:i:5:p:988-1016
    DOI: 10.1111/obes.12364
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/obes.12364
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1111/obes.12364?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Robert Koopman & Zhi Wang & Shang-Jin Wei, 2014. "Tracing Value-Added and Double Counting in Gross Exports," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(2), pages 459-494, February.
    2. Pietrobelli, Carlo & Rabellotti, Roberta, 2011. "Global Value Chains Meet Innovation Systems: Are There Learning Opportunities for Developing Countries?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(7), pages 1261-1269, July.
    3. Borin, Alessandro & Mancini, Michele, 2017. "Follow the Value Added: Tracking Bilateral Relations in Global Value Chains," MPRA Paper 82692, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Pol Antras & Davin Chor & Thibault Fally & Russell Hillberry, 2012. "Measuring the Upstreamness of Production and Trade Flows," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(3), pages 412-416, May.
    5. Robert C. Feenstra, 1998. "Integration of Trade and Disintegration of Production in the Global Economy," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(4), pages 31-50, Fall.
    6. Mr. Kevin C Cheng & Dulani Seneviratne & Sidra Rehman & Shiny Zhang, 2015. "Reaping the Benefits from Global Value Chains," IMF Working Papers 2015/204, International Monetary Fund.
    7. Yuqing Xing & Neal Detert, 2011. "How the iPhone Widens the United States Trade Deficit with the People's Republic of China:," Aussenwirtschaft, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science, Swiss Institute for International Economics and Applied Economics Research, vol. 66(03), pages 339-350, September.
    8. Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman, 2005. "Outsourcing in a Global Economy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 72(1), pages 135-159.
    9. Namchul Shin & Kenneth L. Kraemer & Jason Dedrick, 2012. "Value Capture in the Global Electronics Industry: Empirical Evidence for the “Smiling Curve” Concept," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(2), pages 89-107, February.
    10. Jason Dedrick & Kenneth L. Kraemer & Greg Linden, 2010. "Who profits from innovation in global value chains? A study of the iPod and notebook PCs," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(1), pages 81-116, February.
    11. Zhi Wang & Shang-Jin Wei & Xinding Yu & Kunfu Zhu, 2017. "Characterizing Global Value Chains: Production Length and Upstreamness," NBER Working Papers 23261, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Richard Baldwin, 2011. "Trade And Industrialisation After Globalisation's 2nd Unbundling: How Building And Joining A Supply Chain Are Different And Why It Matters," NBER Working Papers 17716, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Robert Stehrer & Los, Bart & Dietzenbacher, H.W.A. & Timmer, Marcel & Gaaitzen J. de Vries, 2014. "The World Input-Output Database: Content, Concepts and Applications," GGDC Research Memorandum GD-144, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, University of Groningen.
    14. Ram Mudambi, 2008. "Location, control and innovation in knowledge-intensive industries," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(5), pages 699-725, September.
    15. Paul Krugman, 1995. "Growing World Trade: Causes and Consequences," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(1, 25th A), pages 327-377.
    16. Gene M. Grossman & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2008. "Trading Tasks: A Simple Theory of Offshoring," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(5), pages 1978-1997, December.
    17. Arndt, Sven W., 1997. "Globalization and the open economy," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 71-79.
    18. Yuqing Xing & Neal Detert, 2010. "How the iPhone Widens the United States Trade Deficit with the People’s Republic of China," Trade Working Papers 23280, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
    19. Przemyslaw Kowalski & Javier Lopez Gonzalez & Alexandros Ragoussis & Cristian Ugarte, 2015. "Participation of Developing Countries in Global Value Chains: Implications for Trade and Trade-Related Policies," OECD Trade Policy Papers 179, OECD Publishing.
    20. Yuqing Xing & Neal Detert, 2010. "How the iPhone Widens the United States Trade Deficit with the People’s Republic of China," Trade Working Papers 23128, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
    21. Arne J. Nagengast & Robert Stehrer, 2016. "Accounting for the Differences Between Gross and Value Added Trade Balances," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(9), pages 1276-1306, September.
    22. repec:dgr:rugggd:gd-144 is not listed on IDEAS
    23. Miroudot, Sébastien & ye, ming, 2018. "Tracing value-added and double counting in sales of foreign affiliates and domestic-owned companies," MPRA Paper 97632, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    24. Kei-Mu Yi, 2003. "Can Vertical Specialization Explain the Growth of World Trade?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(1), pages 52-102, February.
    25. Hummels, David & Ishii, Jun & Yi, Kei-Mu, 2001. "The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 75-96, June.
    26. Marcel P. Timmer & Abdul Azeez Erumban & Bart Los & Robert Stehrer & Gaaitzen J. de Vries, 2014. "Slicing Up Global Value Chains," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 28(2), pages 99-118, Spring.
    27. Zhi Wang & Shang-Jin Wei & Kunfu Zhu, 2013. "Quantifying International Production Sharing at the Bilateral and Sector Levels," NBER Working Papers 19677, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    28. Meng, Bo & Xiao, Hao & Ye, Jiabai & Li, Shantong, 2019. "Are global value chains truly global? a new perspective based on the measure of trade in value-added," IDE Discussion Papers 736, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    29. Inomata, Satoshi, 2008. "A New Measurement for International Fragmentation of the Production Process: An International Input-Output Approach," IDE Discussion Papers 175, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    30. repec:pri:wwseco:dp218 is not listed on IDEAS
    31. Erik Dietzenbacher & Isidoro Romero, 2007. "Production Chains in an Interregional Framework: Identification by Means of Average Propagation Lengths," International Regional Science Review, , vol. 30(4), pages 362-383, October.
    32. Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman, 2002. "Integration versus Outsourcing in Industry Equilibrium," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(1), pages 85-120.
    33. Jose Campa & Linda S. Goldberg, 1997. "The Evolving External Orientation of Manufacturing Industries: Evidence from Four Countries," NBER Working Papers 5919, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    34. Johnson, Robert C. & Noguera, Guillermo, 2012. "Accounting for intermediates: Production sharing and trade in value added," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 224-236.
    35. Robert Stehrer, 2012. "Trade in Value Added and the Valued Added in Trade," wiiw Working Papers 81, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Jan Hagemejer, 2015. "Productivity spillovers in the GVC. The case of Poland and the New EU Member States," Working Papers 2015-42, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
    2. Ya Liu & Yuhuan Zhao & Hao Li & Song Wang & Yongfeng Zhang & Ye Cao, 2018. "Economic Benefits and Environmental Costs of China's Exports: A Comparison with the USA Based on Network Analysis," China & World Economy, Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 26(4), pages 106-132, July.
    3. Roman Stöllinger, 2019. "Functional Specialisation in Global Value Chains and the Middle-Income Trap," wiiw Research Reports 441, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
    4. Zhao, Yuhuan & Liu, Ya & Qiao, Xiaoyong & Wang, Song & Zhang, Zhonghua & Zhang, Yongfeng & Li, Hao, 2018. "Tracing value added in gross exports of China: Comparison with the USA, Japan, Korea, and India based on generalized LMDI," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 24-44.
    5. Holmström, Harald & Kenney, Martin & Seppälä, Timo, 2021. "Global Supply Chains, Value Added and Production Intensity: Case Semiconductors," ETLA Reports 113, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
    6. Jim H. Shen & Leilei Shen & Jun Zhang, 2018. "Endowment Structure, Industry dynamics and Vertical Production Structure in China-Theory and Evidence," Working Papers 215, Department of Economics, SOAS, University of London, UK.
    7. Di Filippo, Gabriele, 2018. "What Place does Luxembourg hold in Global Value Chains?," MPRA Paper 86235, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Felipe, Jesus, 2018. "Asia’s Industrial Transformation: The Role of Manufacturing and Global Value Chains (Part 2)," ADB Economics Working Paper Series 550, Asian Development Bank.
    9. Kirill Muradov, 2017. "Trade costs and borders in global value chains," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 153(3), pages 487-509, August.
    10. Géza Rippel, 2017. "China – Rebalancing and Sustainable Convergence," Financial and Economic Review, Magyar Nemzeti Bank (Central Bank of Hungary), vol. 16(Sepcial I), pages 50-72.
    11. Michał Gradzewicz & Jakub Mućk, 2020. "Unravelling the markups changes: the role of demand elasticity and concentration," NBP Working Papers 334, Narodowy Bank Polski, Economic Research Department.
    12. Zhou, Yan & Chen, Shumei & Chen, Mei, 2019. "Global value chain, regional trade networks and Sino-EU FTA," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 26-38.
    13. Taguchi, Hiroyuki & Pham, Son Duong, 2019. "Domestic Value Creation in the Involvement in Global Value Chains in Asian Economies: Role of Supporting Industries," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 9(10), pages 1184-1199, October.
    14. Michał Gradzewicz & Jakub Mućk, 2019. "Globalization and the fall of markups," NBP Working Papers 304, Narodowy Bank Polski, Economic Research Department.
    15. Tong Zhao & Zhijie Song & Tianjiao Li, 2018. "Effect of innovation capacity, production capacity and vertical specialization on innovation performance in China's electronic manufacturing: Analysis from the supply and demand sides," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 13(7), pages 1-23, July.
    16. Hertog, Steffen, 2019. "In the spotlight: demands on Saudi Aramco are increasing," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 101249, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    17. Stöllinger, Roman, 2021. "Testing the Smile Curve: Functional Specialisation and Value Creation in GVCs," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 93-116.
    18. Taguchi, Hiroyuki, 2018. "Domestic value creation in global value chains in Asian economies," MPRA Paper 89741, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. ye, ming, 2016. "Trace the goods and value-added route in exports," MPRA Paper 73476, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Cecilia Jona Lasinio & Stefano Manzocchi & Valentina Meliciani, 2017. "Knowledge Based Capital and Value Creation in Global Supply Chains," Working Papers LuissLab 17134, Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, LUISS Guido Carli.
    3. Laura Dell'Agostino, 2017. "Italy’S Participation In International Supply And Production Networks Using Value Added Trade Data," Departmental Working Papers of Economics - University 'Roma Tre' 0228, Department of Economics - University Roma Tre.
    4. Banacloche, Santacruz & Cadarso, María Ángeles & Monsalve, Fabio, 2020. "Implications of measuring value added in exports with a regional input-output table. A case of study in South America," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 130-140.
    5. Vrh, Nataša, 2015. "Pay-off to Participation in Global Value Chains: How Much are New EU Member States Lagging behind the Rest of EU Countries in Terms of Domestic Value Added in Exports?," MPRA Paper 67805, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Suder, Gabriele & Liesch, Peter W. & Inomata, Satoshi & Mihailova, Irina & Meng, Bo, 2015. "The evolving geography of production hubs and regional value chains across East Asia: Trade in value-added," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 404-416.
    7. João Amador & Sónia Cabral, 2014. "Global Value Chains: Surveying Drivers, Measures and Impacts," Working Papers w201403, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    8. Jona-Lasinio, Cecilia & Manzocchi, Stefano & Meliciani, Valentina, 2019. "Knowledge based capital and value creation in global supply chains," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 148(C).
    9. Shen, Leilei & Silva, Peri, 2018. "Value-added exports and U.S. local labor markets: Does China really matter?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 479-504.
    10. Jangam, Bhushan Praveen & Rath, Badri Narayan, 2020. "Cross-country convergence in global value chains: Evidence from club convergence analysis," International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 163(C), pages 134-146.
    11. Marilia Marcato & Carolina Baltar & Fernando Sarti, 2019. "International competitiveness in a vertically fragmented production structure: empirical challenges and evidence," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 39(2), pages 876-893.
    12. Cecilia Jona-Lasinio & Valentina Meliciana, 2019. "Global Value Chains and Productivity Growth: Does Intangible Capital Matter?," International Productivity Monitor, Centre for the Study of Living Standards, vol. 36, pages 53-78, Spring.
    13. Dutta, Sourish, 2020. "Learning and Upgrading in Global Value Chains: An Analysis of India’s Manufacturing Sector," OSF Preprints 2ser9, Center for Open Science.
    14. Di Filippo, Gabriele, 2018. "What Place does Luxembourg hold in Global Value Chains?," MPRA Paper 86235, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Luca Salvatici & Silvia Nenci, 2017. "New features, forgotten costs and counterfactual gains of the international trading system," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 44(4), pages 592-633.
    16. Zhao, Yuhuan & Liu, Ya & Qiao, Xiaoyong & Wang, Song & Zhang, Zhonghua & Zhang, Yongfeng & Li, Hao, 2018. "Tracing value added in gross exports of China: Comparison with the USA, Japan, Korea, and India based on generalized LMDI," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 24-44.
    17. Aichele, Rahel & Heiland, Inga, 2018. "Where is the value added? Trade liberalization and production networks," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 130-144.
    18. Syed Al-Helal Uddin, 2016. "Value-added Trade, Exchange Rate Pass-Through and Trade Elasticity: Revisiting the Trade Competitiveness," 2016 Papers pud11, Job Market Papers.
    19. Ilaria Fusacchia, 2020. "Evaluating the Impact of the US–China Trade War on Euro Area Economies: A Tale of Global Value Chains," Italian Economic Journal: A Continuation of Rivista Italiana degli Economisti and Giornale degli Economisti, Springer;Società Italiana degli Economisti (Italian Economic Association), vol. 6(3), pages 441-468, November.
    20. Pol Antràs & Robert W. Staiger, 2012. "Offshoring and the Role of Trade Agreements," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(7), pages 3140-3183, December.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D57 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Input-Output Tables and Analysis
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • F6 - International Economics - - Economic Impacts of Globalization

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:obuest:v:82:y:2020:i:5:p:988-1016. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/sfeixuk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Wiley Content Delivery (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/sfeixuk.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.