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Quantifying International Production Sharing at the Bilateral and Sector Levels


  • Zhi Wang
  • Shang-Jin Wei
  • Kunfu Zhu


This paper generalizes the gross exports accounting framework, initially proposed by Koopman, Wang, and Wei (2014) for a country’s aggregate exports, to one at the sector, bilateral, and bilateral-sector levels. Such a generalization requires a conceptual distinction between value added exports by forward and backward industrial linkages, and a non-trivial way to allocate bilateral intermediate trade flows into their final destinations of absorption. We present the disaggregated decomposition results among 40 trading nations in 35 sectors from 1995 to 2011 based on the World Input-Output Database and show how they help us to better understand the patterns of cross-country production sharing.

Suggested Citation

  • Zhi Wang & Shang-Jin Wei & Kunfu Zhu, 2013. "Quantifying International Production Sharing at the Bilateral and Sector Levels," NBER Working Papers 19677, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:19677
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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Robert Koopman & Zhi Wang & Shang-Jin Wei, 2014. "Tracing Value-Added and Double Counting in Gross Exports," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(2), pages 459-494, February.
    2. Richard Baldwin & Javier Lopez-Gonzalez, 2015. "Supply-chain Trade: A Portrait of Global Patterns and Several Testable Hypotheses," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(11), pages 1682-1721, November.
    3. Robert C. Feenstra & Gordon H. Hanson, 1999. "The Impact of Outsourcing and High-Technology Capital on Wages: Estimates For the United States, 1979–1990," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(3), pages 907-940.
    4. Pol Antras & Davin Chor & Thibault Fally & Russell Hillberry, 2012. "Measuring the Upstreamness of Production and Trade Flows," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(3), pages 412-416, May.
    5. Guillaume Daudin & Christine Rifflart & Danielle Schweisguth, 2011. "Who produces for whom in the world economy?," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 44(4), pages 1403-1437, November.
    6. Marcel P. Timmer & Bart Los & Robert Stehrer & Gaaitzen J. Vries, 2013. "Fragmentation, incomes and jobs: an analysis of European competitiveness," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 28(76), pages 613-661, October.
    7. Robert C. Feenstra, 1998. "Integration of Trade and Disintegration of Production in the Global Economy," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(4), pages 31-50, Fall.
    8. Baldwin, Richard & Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric, 2014. "Trade-in-goods and trade-in-tasks: An integrating framework," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(1), pages 51-62.
    9. Hummels, David & Ishii, Jun & Yi, Kei-Mu, 2001. "The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 75-96, June.
    10. Gaaitzen De Vries & Neil Foster-McGregor & Robert Stehrer, 2012. "Value Added and Factors in Trade: A Comprehensive Approach," wiiw Working Papers 80, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
    11. Johnson, Robert C. & Noguera, Guillermo, 2012. "Accounting for intermediates: Production sharing and trade in value added," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 224-236.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


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    Cited by:

    1. Magdalena Olczyk & Aleksandra Kordalska, 2017. "Gross Exports Versus Value-Added Exports: Determinants and Policy Implications for Manufacturing Sectors in Selected CEE Countries," Eastern European Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 55(1), pages 91-109, January.
    2. Meng, Bo & Peters, Glen & Wang, Zhi, 2015. "Tracing CO2 emissions in global value chains," IDE Discussion Papers 486, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    3. Tang, Heiwai & Wang, Fei & Wang, Zhi, 2014. "The domestic segment of global supply chains in China under state capitalism," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6960, The World Bank.
    4. Nikhil Patel & Zhi Wang & Shang-Jin Wei, 2014. "Global Value Chains and Effective Exchange Rates at the Country-Sector Level," NBER Working Papers 20236, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. repec:oup:erevae:v:44:y:2017:i:4:p:592-633. is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Borin, Alessandro & Mancini, Michele, 2017. "Follow the Value Added: Tracking Bilateral Relations in Global Value Chains," MPRA Paper 82692, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Zhi Wang & Shang-Jin Wei & Xinding Yu & Kunfu Zhu, 2017. "Characterizing Global Value Chains: Production Length and Upstreamness," NBER Working Papers 23261, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Gordon H. Hanson, 2017. "What Do We Really Know about Offshoring? Industries and Countries in Global Production Sharing," Development Working Papers 416, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano, revised 21 Feb 2017.
    9. Alessandro Borin & Michele Mancini, 2015. "Follow the value added: bilateral gross export accounting," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1026, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    10. Liou, Ruey-Wan & Lin, Hsing-Chun & Chang, Ching-Cheng & Hsu, Shih-Hsun, 2016. "Unveiling the true value of across-strait trade: The global value chain approach," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 159-180.
    11. Rita Cappariello & Alberto Felettigh, 2015. "How does foreign demand activate domestic value added? A comparison among the largest euro-area economies," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1001, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    12. Heiwai Tang & Fei Wang & Zhi Wang, 2016. "Extending the Input-Output Table Based on Firm-level Data," CESifo Working Paper Series 5811, CESifo Group Munich.
    13. E. Dhyne & C. Duprez, 2016. "Three Regions, three economies ?," Economic Review, National Bank of Belgium, issue iii, pages 59-73, December.
    14. Miroudot, Sébastien & Ye, Ming, 2017. "Decomposition of Value-Added in Gross Exports:Unresolved Issues and Possible Solutions," MPRA Paper 83273, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. repec:eee:eneeco:v:64:y:2017:i:c:p:13-23 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Syed Al-Helal Uddin, 2016. "Value-added Trade, Exchange Rate Pass-Through and Trade Elasticity: Revisiting the Trade Competitiveness," 2016 Papers pud11, Job Market Papers.
    17. Ando, Asao & Meng, Bo, 2016. "A unified framework of trade in value added : physical, monetary, exchange rates, and GHG emissions," IDE Discussion Papers 563, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F1 - International Economics - - Trade
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration

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