IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

Capital structure formation in multinational and local companies in the Baltic States

  • Mari Avarmaa

    ()

    (Tallinn University of Technology)

  • Aaro Hazak

    ()

    (Tallinn University of Technology)

  • Kadri Männasoo

    ()

    (Tallinn University of Technology)

This paper investigates whether there are systematic differences in the capital structure formation of local companies and subsidiaries of multinational companies (MNCs) operating in the Baltic States over the period from 2000 to 2008. The analysis is based on panel data estimation on a sample covering 87,000 company-year observations. We find local companies to be more leveraged than MNCs, mainly explained by use of intra group equity financing, lower investment intensity and higher profit retention of the latter. However, MNCs appear to have had better access to external finance, resulting in their competitive advantage over local companies, especially in periods characterised by significant credit constraints. In contrast, local companies appear to have started to increase their leverage under relaxed credit constraints during the years of economic boom, demonstrating local companies’ greater vulnerability to adverse cyclical effects.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://biceps.org/assets/docs/bje/Capital%20structure%20formation%20in%20multinational%20and%20local%20companies%20in%20the%20Baltic%20States.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Article provided by Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies in its journal Baltic Journal of Economics.

Volume (Year): 11 (2011)
Issue (Month): 1 (July)
Pages: 125-146

as
in new window

Handle: RePEc:bic:journl:v:11:y:2011:i:1:p:125-146
Contact details of provider: Postal:
Strelnieku iela 4a, Riga, LV-1010

Phone: +371 67039320
Fax: +371 67039318
Web page: http://www.biceps.org
Email:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Mittoo, Usha R. & Zhang, Zhou, 2008. "The capital structure of multinational corporations: Canadian versus U.S. evidence," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 706-720, December.
  2. Harry Huizinga & Luc Laeven & Gaetan Nicodeme, 2006. "Capital structure and international debt shifting," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 263, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
  3. Graham, John R., 1996. "Debt and the marginal tax rate," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 41-73, May.
  4. Charles J P Chen & C S Agnes Cheng & Jia He & Jawon kim, 1997. "An Investigation of the Relationship between International Activities and Capital Structure," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 28(3), pages 563-577, September.
  5. Ralph Haas & Marga Peeters, 2006. "The dynamic adjustment towards target capital structures of firms in transition economies ," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 14(1), pages 133-169, 03.
  6. Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Doukas, John A. & Pantzalis, Christos, 2003. "Geographic diversification and agency costs of debt of multinational firms," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 59-92, January.
  8. Myers, Stewart C., 1984. "Capital structure puzzle," Working papers 1548-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
  9. Shumi Akhtar & Barry Oliver, 2009. "Determinants of Capital Structure for Japanese Multinational and Domestic Corporations-super-," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 9(1-2), pages 1-26.
  10. Aaro Hazak, 2009. "Companies' Financial Decisions Under the Distributed Profit Taxation Regime of Estonia," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 45(4), pages 4-12, July.
  11. Kwang Chul Lee & Chuck C Y Kwok, 1988. "Multinational Corporations vs. Domestic Corporations: International Environmental Factors and Determinants of Capital Structure," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 19(2), pages 195-217, June.
  12. MacKie-Mason, Jeffrey K, 1990. " Do Taxes Affect Corporate Financing Decisions?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(5), pages 1471-93, December.
  13. Vijay Jog & Jianmin Tang, 2001. "Tax Reforms, Debt Shifting and Tax Revenues: Multinational Corporations in Canada," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 8(1), pages 5-25, January.
  14. Aaro Hazak & Kadri Männasoo, 2007. "Indicators of corporate default : an EU based empirical study," Bank of Estonia Working Papers 2007-10, Bank of Estonia, revised 04 Sep 2007.
  15. Myers, Stewart C, 1984. " The Capital Structure Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 575-92, July.
  16. Kesternich, Iris & Schnitzer, Monika, 2009. "Who is afraid of political risk? Multinational firms and their choice of capital structure," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2009,02, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  17. Chowdhry, Bhagwan & Nanda, Vikram, 1994. "Financing of multinational subsidiaries: Parent debt vs. external debt," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 259-281, August.
  18. Todd A Burgman, 1996. "An Empirical Examination of Multinational Corporate Capital Structure," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 27(3), pages 553-570, September.
  19. Chowdhry, Bhagwan & Coval, Joshua D., 1998. "Internal financing of multinational subsidiaries: Debt vs. equity1," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 87-106, March.
  20. Singh, Kuljot & Hodder, James E., 2000. "Multinational capital structure and financial flexibility," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 853-884, December.
  21. Deesomsak, Rataporn & Paudyal, Krishna & Pescetto, Gioia, 2004. "The determinants of capital structure: evidence from the Asia Pacific region," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 14(4-5), pages 387-405.
  22. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
  23. Karin Joeveer, 2006. "Sources of Capital Structure: Evidence from Transition Countries," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp306, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute, Prague.
  24. Frank, Murray Z. & Goyal, Vidhan K., 2009. "Capital Structure Decisions: Which Factors are Reliably Important?," MPRA Paper 22525, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  25. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
  26. Aggarwal, Raj & Kyaw, NyoNyo A., 2008. "Internal capital networks as a source of MNC competitive advantage: Evidence from foreign subsidiary capital structure decisions," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 409-439, September.
  27. Stewart C. Myers, 1984. "Capital Structure Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 1393, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  28. Chkir, Imed Eddine & Cosset, Jean-Claude, 2001. "Diversification strategy and capital structure of multinational corporations," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 17-37, February.
  29. Gaud, Philippe & Hoesli, Martin & Bender, Andre, 2007. "Debt-equity choice in Europe," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 201-222.
  30. Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, 1994. "What Do We Know About Capital Structure? Some Evidence from International Data," NBER Working Papers 4875, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  31. Nivorozhkin, Eugene, 2005. "Financing choices of firms in EU accession countries," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 138-169, June.
  32. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
  33. Laurence Booth, 2001. "Capital Structures in Developing Countries," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(1), pages 87-130, 02.
  34. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. " The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
  35. Kraus, Alan & Litzenberger, Robert H, 1973. "A State-Preference Model of Optimal Financial Leverage," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 28(4), pages 911-22, September.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bic:journl:v:11:y:2011:i:1:p:125-146. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lelde Jakobsone)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.