IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Capital structure formation in multinational and local companies in the Baltic States

  • Mari Avarmaa

    ()

    (Tallinn University of Technology)

  • Aaro Hazak

    ()

    (Tallinn University of Technology)

  • Kadri Männasoo

    ()

    (Tallinn University of Technology)

Registered author(s):

    This paper investigates whether there are systematic differences in the capital structure formation of local companies and subsidiaries of multinational companies (MNCs) operating in the Baltic States over the period from 2000 to 2008. The analysis is based on panel data estimation on a sample covering 87,000 company-year observations. We find local companies to be more leveraged than MNCs, mainly explained by use of intra group equity financing, lower investment intensity and higher profit retention of the latter. However, MNCs appear to have had better access to external finance, resulting in their competitive advantage over local companies, especially in periods characterised by significant credit constraints. In contrast, local companies appear to have started to increase their leverage under relaxed credit constraints during the years of economic boom, demonstrating local companies’ greater vulnerability to adverse cyclical effects.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://biceps.org/assets/docs/bje/Capital%20structure%20formation%20in%20multinational%20and%20local%20companies%20in%20the%20Baltic%20States.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Article provided by Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies in its journal Baltic Journal of Economics.

    Volume (Year): 11 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 1 (July)
    Pages: 125-146

    as
    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:bic:journl:v:11:y:2011:i:1:p:125-146
    Contact details of provider: Postal: Strelnieku iela 4a, Riga, LV-1010
    Phone: +371 67039320
    Fax: +371 67039318
    Web page: http://www.biceps.org/
    Email:


    More information through EDIRC

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Huizinga, Harry & Laeven, Luc & Nicodeme, Gaetan, 2008. "Capital structure and international debt shifting," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 80-118, April.
    2. Jeffrey MacKie-Mason, 1988. "Do Taxes Affect Corporate Financing Decisions?," NBER Working Papers 2632, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Karin Jõeveer, 2006. "Sources of capital structure : evidence from transition countries," Bank of Estonia Working Papers 2006-02, Bank of Estonia, revised 12 Nov 2006.
    5. Aaro Hazak, 2009. "Companies' Financial Decisions Under the Distributed Profit Taxation Regime of Estonia," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 45(4), pages 4-12, July.
    6. Chowdhry, Bhagwan & Nanda, Vikram, 1994. "Financing of multinational subsidiaries: Parent debt vs. external debt," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 259-281, August.
    7. Charles J P Chen & C S Agnes Cheng & Jia He & Jawon kim, 1997. "An Investigation of the Relationship between International Activities and Capital Structure," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 28(3), pages 563-577, September.
    8. Rajan, Raghuram G & Zingales, Luigi, 1995. " What Do We Know about Capital Structure? Some Evidence from International Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1421-60, December.
    9. Kwang Chul Lee & Chuck C Y Kwok, 1988. "Multinational Corporations vs. Domestic Corporations: International Environmental Factors and Determinants of Capital Structure," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 19(2), pages 195-217, June.
    10. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. " The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
    11. Ralph Haas & Marga Peeters, 2006. "The dynamic adjustment towards target capital structures of firms in transition economies ," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 14(1), pages 133-169, 03.
    12. Aggarwal, Raj & Kyaw, NyoNyo A., 2008. "Internal capital networks as a source of MNC competitive advantage: Evidence from foreign subsidiary capital structure decisions," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 409-439, September.
    13. Kesternich, Iris & Schnitzer, Monika, 2007. "Who is Afraid of Political Risk? Multinational Firms and their Choice of Capital Structure," CEPR Discussion Papers 6468, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    14. Murray Z. Frank & Vidhan K. Goyal, 2009. "Capital Structure Decisions: Which Factors Are Reliably Important?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 38(1), pages 1-37, 03.
    15. Chkir, Imed Eddine & Cosset, Jean-Claude, 2001. "Diversification strategy and capital structure of multinational corporations," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 17-37, February.
    16. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
    17. Mittoo, Usha R. & Zhang, Zhou, 2008. "The capital structure of multinational corporations: Canadian versus U.S. evidence," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 706-720, December.
    18. Kraus, Alan & Litzenberger, Robert H, 1973. "A State-Preference Model of Optimal Financial Leverage," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 28(4), pages 911-22, September.
    19. Nivorozhkin, Eugene, 2005. "Financing choices of firms in EU accession countries," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 138-169, June.
    20. Shumi Akhtar & Barry Oliver, 2009. "Determinants of Capital Structure for Japanese Multinational and Domestic Corporations-super-," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 9(1-2), pages 1-26.
    21. Doukas, John A. & Pantzalis, Christos, 2003. "Geographic diversification and agency costs of debt of multinational firms," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 59-92, January.
    22. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    23. Laurence Booth, 2001. "Capital Structures in Developing Countries," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(1), pages 87-130, 02.
    24. Philippe Gaud & Martin HOesli & André Bender, 2005. "Debt Equity Choice in Europe," FAME Research Paper Series rp152, International Center for Financial Asset Management and Engineering.
    25. Chowdhry, Bhagwan & Coval, Joshua D., 1998. "Internal financing of multinational subsidiaries: Debt vs. equity1," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 87-106, March.
    26. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
    27. Vijay Jog & Jianmin Tang, 2001. "Tax Reforms, Debt Shifting and Tax Revenues: Multinational Corporations in Canada," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 5-25, January.
    28. Stewart C. Myers, 1984. "Capital Structure Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 1393, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    29. Graham, John R., 1996. "Debt and the marginal tax rate," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 41-73, May.
    30. Deesomsak, Rataporn & Paudyal, Krishna & Pescetto, Gioia, 2004. "The determinants of capital structure: evidence from the Asia Pacific region," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 14(4-5), pages 387-405.
    31. Singh, Kuljot & Hodder, James E., 2000. "Multinational capital structure and financial flexibility," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 853-884, December.
    32. Myers, Stewart C., 1984. "Capital structure puzzle," Working papers 1548-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    33. Myers, Stewart C, 1984. " The Capital Structure Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 575-92, July.
    34. Todd A Burgman, 1996. "An Empirical Examination of Multinational Corporate Capital Structure," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 27(3), pages 553-570, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bic:journl:v:11:y:2011:i:1:p:125-146. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lelde Ivankova)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.