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The capital structure of multinational corporations: Canadian versus U.S. evidence

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  • Mittoo, Usha R.
  • Zhang, Zhou

Abstract

Contrary to the U.S. evidence, we show that Canadian multinational corporations (MNCs) display higher leverage than domestic firms (DCs). This higher leverage is due to lower agency costs of debt associated with MNCs' U.S. operations. We also find that the Canadian firms with international bond market access have higher leverage than firms without such access. Comparison with a U.S. matched sample shows that the sensitivity of leverage to firm-specific factors differs between the two countries, especially for the MNCs samples. Our evidence indicates that capital structures of MNCs are a complex interaction of both home and host country factors and differences in leverage determinants across countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Mittoo, Usha R. & Zhang, Zhou, 2008. "The capital structure of multinational corporations: Canadian versus U.S. evidence," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 706-720, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:corfin:v:14:y:2008:i:5:p:706-720
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Lars Oxelheim & Trond Randøy & Arthur Stonehill, 2012. "What can international finance add to international strategy?," Chapters,in: Handbook of Research on International Strategic Management, chapter 12, pages 238-253 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    2. repec:cuf:journl:y:2017:v:18:i:2:agyei-boapeah is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Karampatsas, Nikolaos & Petmezas, Dimitris & Travlos, Nickolaos G., 2014. "Credit ratings and the choice of payment method in mergers and acquisitions," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 474-493.
    4. Pacheco, Luís, 2016. "Capital structure and internationalization: The case of Portuguese industrial SMEs," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 531-545.
    5. Park, Soon Hong & Suh, Jungwon & Yeung, Bernard, 2013. "Do multinational and domestic corporations differ in their leverage policies?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 115-139.
    6. Niloufar Rezaie Nejad & Shaista Wasiuzzaman, 2015. "Multilevel Determinants of Capital Structure: Evidence from Malaysia," Global Business Review, International Management Institute, vol. 16(2), pages 199-212, April.
    7. Mari Avarmaa & Aaro Hazak & Kadri Männasoo, 2011. "Capital structure formation in multinational and local companies in the Baltic States," Baltic Journal of Economics, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies, vol. 11(1), pages 125-146, July.
    8. Shumi Akhtar & Barry Oliver, 2009. "Determinants of Capital Structure for Japanese Multinational and Domestic Corporations-super-," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 9(1-2), pages 1-26.
    9. Ramirez, Andres & Kwok, Chuck C.Y., 2010. "Settling the debate on multinational capital structure using the CEPR measure," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 20(4-5), pages 251-271, December.
    10. Ge, Wenxia & Kim, Jeong-Bon & Li, Tiemei & Li, Yutao, 2016. "Offshore operations and bank loan contracting: Evidence from firms that set up subsidiaries in offshore financial centers," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 335-355.
    11. Musumeci, Jim & Peterson, Mark, 2011. "BE/ME and E/P work better than ME/BE or P/E in regressions," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 1272-1288.
    12. Judge, Amrit & Korzhenitskaya, Anna, 2012. "Credit market conditions and the impact of access to the public debt market on corporate leverage," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 28-63.
    13. repec:gam:jijfss:v:6:y:2018:i:1:p:13-:d:128713 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. repec:cuf:journl:y:2017:v:18:i:1:agyei-boapeah is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Rui Zhang & Xun Zhang, 2016. "Capital Structure Premium in Multinational SOEs: Evidence from China," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(1), pages 283-293, February.
    16. Koziol, Christian & Lawrenz, Jochen, 2010. "Optimal design of rating-trigger step-up bonds: Agency conflicts versus asymmetric information," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 182-204, April.
    17. Keshari, Pradeep Kumar, 2013. "Comparative performance of foreign affiliates and domestic firms in the Indian machinery industry," MPRA Paper 33076, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 20 Apr 2013.

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