The effect of schooling on fertility, labor market participation and children?s outcomes, evidence from Ecuador
AbstractUsing a representative sample of Ecuadorian young women’s households, this paper focuses on the role played by education in shaping fertility choices, labor market participation rate and future children’s outcomes. Education, which is found to be endogenous with respect to teenage childbearing, is instrumented by a reform that took place in 1977. Estimates show that the completion of lower secondary school decreases the probability of early motherhood by 7%. Then, after controlling for labor market preferences in a model where the choices to be a mother and to be in the labor force are considered simultaneously, we find evidence that schooling is positively related to women’s labor market participation rate and negatively to early motherhood. The last section concludes stressing the potential intergenerational effects of changes in the age at first birth, showing that firstborn children born to older mothers have better educational outcomes than those born to younger ones. So policies aimed at increasing women educational attainment are found to be positively related to better women’s outcomes, expressed by lowered teenage motherhood rate and by increased labor market attachment, and also to improved children’s conditions, represented by their schooling attendance.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano in its series Departmental Working Papers with number 2010-30.
Date of creation: 28 Sep 2010
Date of revision:
Schooling; education policy; fertility; children; labor force; women;
Other versions of this item:
- Anna de Paoli, 2011. "Education, Teenage Fertility and Labour Market Participation, Evidence from Ecuador," Development Working Papers 319, Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano, University of Milano, revised 17 Oct 2011.
- I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
- I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy
- J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
- J20 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - General
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- SandraE. Black & PaulJ. Devereux & KjellG. Salvanes, 2008. "Staying in the Classroom and out of the maternity ward? The effect of compulsory schooling laws on teenage births," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(530), pages 1025-1054, 07.
- Heckman, James J & Walker, James R, 1990. "The Relationship between Wages and Income and the Timing and Spacing of Births: Evidence from Swedish Longitudinal Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(6), pages 1411-41, November.
- George B. Roberts, Chairman, Universities-National Bureau Committee for Economic Research, 1960. "Demographic and Economic Change in Developed Countries," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number univ60-2.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R, 1990. "Population Growth and Human Capital Investments: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages S38-70, October.
- Carmen Elisa Florez & Jairo Núñez, 2002.
"Teenage Childbearing In Latin American Countries,"
003547, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
- Siv Gustafsson, 2001. "Optimal age at motherhood. Theoretical and empirical considerations on postponement of maternity in Europe," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 14(2), pages 225-247.
- Monstad, Karin & Propper, Carol & Salvanes, Kjell G, 2008.
"Education and Fertility: Evidence from a Natural Experiment,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
6816, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Karin Monstad & Carol Propper & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2008. "Education and Fertility: Evidence from a Natural Experiment," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 110(4), pages 827-852, December.
- Monstad, Karin & Propper, Carol & Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar, 2008. "Education and Fertility: Evidence from a Natural Experiment," Working Papers in Economics 05/08, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
- Moffitt, Robert, 1984. "Profiles of Fertility, Labour Supply and Wages of Married Women: A Complete Life-Cycle Model," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(2), pages 263-78, April.
- Paul Glewwe, 2002. "Schools and Skills in Developing Countries: Education Policies and Socioeconomic Outcomes," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 40(2), pages 436-482, June.
- Angrist, Joshua D & Krueger, Alan B, 1991.
"Does Compulsory School Attendance Affect Schooling and Earnings?,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 106(4), pages 979-1014, November.
- Joshua D. Angrist & Alan B. Krueger, 1990. "Does Compulsory School Attendance Affect Schooling and Earnings?," NBER Working Papers 3572, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Joshua Angrist & Alan Krueger, 1990. "Does Compulsory School Attendance Affect Schooling and Earnings?," Working Papers 653, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- David S. Lee & Thomas Lemieux, 2010.
"Regression Discontinuity Designs in Economics,"
Journal of Economic Literature,
American Economic Association, vol. 48(2), pages 281-355, June.
- David S. Lee & Thomas Lemieux, 2009. "Regression Discontinuity Designs in Economics," NBER Working Papers 14723, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David S. Lee & Thomas Lemieux, 2009. "Regression Discontinuity Designs In Economics," Working Papers 1118, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- James R. Walker, 1994.
"The Effect of Public Policies on Recent Swedish Fertility Behavior,"
Labor and Demography
- Walker, James R, 1995. "The Effect of Public Policies on Recent Swedish Fertility Behavior," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 223-51, August.
- Massimiliano BRATTI, 2001.
"Labour Force Participation and Marital Fertility of Italian Women: The Role of Education,"
154, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
- Massimiliano Bratti, 2003. "Labour force participation and marital fertility of Italian women: The role of education," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 16(3), pages 525-554, 08.
- Bratti, Massimiliano, 2002. "Labour Force Participation and Marital Fertility of Italian Women: The Role of Education," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2002 34, Royal Economic Society.
- Eliana La Ferrara & Alberto Chong & Suzanne Duryea, 2008.
"Soap Operas and Fertility: Evidence from Brazil,"
Research Department Publications
4573, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
- David C. Ribar, 1999. "The socioeconomic consequences of young women's childbearing: Reconciling disparate evidence," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 12(4), pages 547-565.
- David I. Levine & Gary Painter, 2003. "The Schooling Costs of Teenage Out-of-Wedlock Childbearing: Analysis with a Within-School Propensity-Score-Matching Estimator," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 884-900, November.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R & Seiver, Daniel A, 1982. "Education and Contraceptive Choice: A Conditional Demand Framework," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 23(1), pages 171-98, February.
- Ribar, D., 1991.
"Teenage Fertility and High Scholl Completion,"
10-91-2, Pennsylvania State - Department of Economics.
- David Lam & Suzanne Duryea, 1999. "Effects of Schooling on Fertility, Labor Supply, and Investments in Children, with Evidence from Brazil," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 34(1), pages 160-192.
- Una Okonkwo Osili & Bridget Terry Long, 2007.
"Does Female Schooling Reduce Fertility? Evidence from Nigeria,"
NBER Working Papers
13070, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Osili, Una Okonkwo & Long, Bridget Terry, 2008. "Does female schooling reduce fertility? Evidence from Nigeria," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 57-75, August.
- Brunello, Giorgio & Fort, Margherita & Schneeweis, Nicole & Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 2011. "The Causal Effect of Education on Health," Economics Series 280, Institute for Advanced Studies.
- Mary Silles, 2011. "The effect of schooling on teenage childbearing: evidence using changes in compulsory education laws," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 24(2), pages 761-777, April.
- Cruces, Guillermo & Galiani, Sebastian, 2007.
"Fertility and female labor supply in Latin America: New causal evidence,"
Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 565-573, June.
- Sebastian Galiani & Guillermo Cruces, 2005. "Fertility and Female Labor Supply in Latin America: New Causal Evidence," Working Papers 84, Universidad de San Andres, Departamento de Economia, revised Jun 2007.
- Guillermo Cruces & Sebastian Galiani, 2005. "Fertility and Female Labor Supply in Latin America: New Causal Evidence," Labor and Demography 0511011, EconWPA.
- Kruger, Diana & Berthelon, Matias, 2009. "Delaying the Bell: The Effects of Longer School Days on Adolescent Motherhood in Chile," IZA Discussion Papers 4553, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Francesconi, Marco, 2007.
"Adult Outcomes for Children of Teenage Mothers,"
IZA Discussion Papers
2778, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Ainsworth, Martha & Beegle, Kathleen & Nyamete, Andrew, 1996. "The Impact of Women's Schooling on Fertility and Contraceptive Use: A Study of Fourteen Sub-Saharan African Countries," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 10(1), pages 85-122, January.
- Weeks, M. & Orne, C., 1999. "The Statistical Relationship between Bivariate and Multinomial Choice Models," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9912, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Di Tommaso, M.L. & Weeks, M., 2000. "Decision Structures and Discrete Choices: An Application to Labour Market Participation and Fertility," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0009, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Di Tommaso, Maria Laura, 1999. "A Trivariate Model of Participation, Fertility and Wages: The Italian Case," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(5), pages 623-40, September.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R & Schultz, T Paul, 1985. "The Demand for and Supply of Births: Fertility and Its Life Cycle Consequences," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(5), pages 992-1015, December.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (DEMM Working Papers).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.