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The Unbalanced Uruguay Round Outcome: The New Areas in Future WTO Negotiations


  • J. Michael Finger

    (Vernon Taylor Professor of Economics, Trinity University)

  • Julio J. Nogués

    (Universidad Di Tella)


The Uruguay Round involved a grand North-South bargain: The North reduced import barriers, particularly in textiles and agriculture. The South adopted new domestic regulations in such areas as services and intellectual property—changes that would lead to increased purchases from the North. In mercantilist economics, apples for apples—imports for imports. In real economics, apples for oranges. Finger and Nogués argue that while the North’s reduction of import barriers benefits both the North and the South, the new domestic regulations adopted by countries of the South could prove costly to those countries. To begin with, the regulations will be expensive to implement. And while the cost side of their impact is secured by a legal obligation (in the case of intellectual property rights, for example, the cost is higher prices for patented goods), the benefits side is not so secured.

Suggested Citation

  • J. Michael Finger & Julio J. Nogués, 2005. "The Unbalanced Uruguay Round Outcome: The New Areas in Future WTO Negotiations," International Trade 0502010, EconWPA.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpit:0502010
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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. J. Michael Finger & Julio J. Nogués, 2002. "The Unbalanced Uruguay Round Outcome: The New Areas in Future WTO Negotiations," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(3), pages 321-340, March.
    2. Dam, Kenneth W., 2001. "The Rules of the Global Game," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 1, number 9780226134932, March.
    3. Finger, J. Michael & Schuknecht, Ludger, 1999. "Market access advances and retreats : the Uruguay Round and beyond," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2232, The World Bank.
    4. Gary Clyde Hufbauer & Kimberly Ann Elliott, 1994. "Measuring the Costs of Protection in the United States," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 77.
    5. Martin, W. & Winters, L.A., 1995. "The Uruguay Round and the Developing Countries," World Bank - Discussion Papers 307, World Bank.
    6. Finger, Michael J. & Schuler, Philip, 1999. "Implementation of Ururguay Round commitments : the development challenge," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2215, The World Bank.
    7. Michael Mussa, 2002. "Argentina and the Fund: From Triumph to Tragedy," Peterson Institute Press: Policy Analyses in International Economics, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number pa67, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Felicitas NOWAK-LEHMANN & Inmaculada MARTÍNEZ-ZARZOSO, "undated". "Would MERCOSUR´s Exports to the EU Profit from Trade Liberalisation ? Some General Insights and a Simulation Study for Argentina," EcoMod2004 330600105, EcoMod.
    2. Sudip Ranjan Basu & Victor Ognivtsev & Miho Shirotori, 2009. "Building Trade-Relating Institutions And Wto Accession," UNCTAD Blue Series Papers 41, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    3. Arvind Panagariya, 2002. "Developing Countries at Doha: A Political Economy Analysis," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(9), pages 1205-1233, September.
    4. Manfred Elsig, 2010. "The World Trade Organization at work: Performance in a member-driven milieu," The Review of International Organizations, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 345-363, September.
    5. Peter Draper & Mzukisi Qobo, 2011. "Rabbits Caught in the Headlights? Africa and the ‘Multilateralizing Regionalism’ Paradigm," Chapters,in: Regional Integration, Economic Development and Global Governance, chapter 6 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    6. Drusilla K. Brown & Alan V. Deardorff & Robert M Stern, 2002. "Computational Analysis of Multilateral Trade Liberalization in the Uruguay Round and Doha Development Round," Working Papers 489, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
    7. Ludema, Rodney D & Mayda, Anna Maria & McClure, Jonathan C. F., 2015. "Dragons, Giants, Elephants and Mice: Evolution of the MFN Free Rider Problem in the WTO Era," CEPR Discussion Papers 10961, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    8. Julio J. Nogues, 2005. "Issues on Agricultural Negotiations in the FTAA and Linkages With the Doha Round," International Trade 0502006, EconWPA.
    9. Julio J. Nogues, 2005. "Unequal Exchange: Developing Countries in the International Trade Negotiations," International Trade 0502011, EconWPA.
    10. Richard Kozul-Wright & Paul Rayment, 2004. "Globalization Reloaded: An Unctad Perspective," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 167, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    11. Carsten Herrmann-Pillath, 2006. "Reciprocity and the hidden constitution of world trade," Constitutional Political Economy, Springer, vol. 17(3), pages 133-163, September.
    12. Felicitas Nowak-Lehmann & Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso, 2003. "MERCOSUR-EU trade: The impact of adverse macroeconomic developments and trade barriers on MERCOSUR exports," International Trade 0310002, EconWPA.
    13. Sánchez-Cano, Julieta Evangelina, 2012. "The public policies of the mexican agricutural sector in the framework of the international economy," eseconomía, Escuela Superior de Economía, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, vol. 0(33), pages 45-77, primer tr.
    14. Mehdi Abbas, 2008. "Les rapports Nord-Sud à l'OMC. Entre différenciation et espace politique pour le développement," Post-Print halshs-00217467, HAL.

    More about this item


    Uruguay Round; Services negotiations; Doha Round reciprocity;

    JEL classification:

    • F1 - International Economics - - Trade
    • F2 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business

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