Unequal Exchange: Developing Countries in the International Trade Negotiations
The results of the Uruguay Round, show that the concessions given by developing countries were generally more valuable than those they received from industrial countries. I suggest that this outcome is explained by aggressive demands from industrial countries, and by the lack of resources at the disposal of developing countries. These and other “structural factors”, weaken the negotiating capacity of developing countries and the outcome of their bargaining, is likely to be an “unequal exchange of concessions”. The paper discussess the costs of these exchanges, and the structural factors that help to understand the processes leading to these outcomes.
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- J. Michael Finger & Julio J. Nogués, 2002.
"The Unbalanced Uruguay Round Outcome: The New Areas in Future WTO Negotiations,"
The World Economy,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(3), pages 321-340, March.
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- Finger, J. Michael & Schuknecht, Ludger, 1999. "Market access advances and retreats : the Uruguay Round and beyond," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2232, The World Bank.
- Gary Clyde Hufbauer & Kimberly Ann Elliott, 1994. "Measuring the Costs of Protection in the United States," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 77.
- Martin, W. & Winters, L.A., 1995. "The Uruguay Round and the Developing Countries," World Bank - Discussion Papers 307, World Bank.
- Finger, Michael J. & Schuler, Philip, 1999. "Implementation of Ururguay Round commitments : the development challenge," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2215, The World Bank.
- Michael Mussa, 2002. "Argentina and the Fund: From Triumph to Tragedy," Peterson Institute Press: Policy Analyses in International Economics, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number pa67, February.
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