The Max-Min-Min Principle of Product Differentiation
We analyze two and three-dimensional variants of Hotelling's model of differentiated products. In our setup, consumers can place different importance on each product attribute; this is measured by a weight in the disutility of distance in each dimension. Two firms play a two-stage game; they choose locations in stage 1 and prices in stage 2. We seek subgame-perfect equilibria. We find that all such equilibria have maximal differentiation in one dimension only; in all other dimensions, they have minimum differentiation. An equilibrium with maximal differentiation in a certain dimension occurs when consumers place sufficient importance (weight) on that attribute. Thus, depending on the importance consumers place on each attribute, in two dimensions there is a max-min equilibrium, a min-max equilibrium, or both. In three dimensions, depending on the weights, there can be a max-min-min equilibrium, a min-max-min equilibrium, a min-min-max equilibrium, any two of them, or all three.
|Date of creation:||05 Feb 1997|
|Date of revision:|
|Note:||Type of Document - PDF/PostScript; prepared on IBM; to print on HP; pages: 36; figures: included at the end. forthcoming, Journal of Regional Science (1997)|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://econwpa.repec.org|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- d'Aspremont, C & Gabszewicz, Jean Jaskold & Thisse, J-F, 1979.
"On Hotelling's "Stability in Competition","
Econometric Society, vol. 47(5), pages 1145-50, September.
- Mark B. Vandenbosch & Charles B. Weinberg, 1995. "Product and Price Competition in a Two-Dimensional Vertical Differentiation Model," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 14(2), pages 224-249.
- Neven, D. & Thisse, J-F., 1989. "On Quality And Variety Competition," CORE Discussion Papers 1989020, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Economides, Nicholas, 1989. "Symmetric equilibrium existence and optimality in differentiated product markets," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 178-194, February.
- Tabuchi, Takatoshi, 1994. "Two-stage two-dimensional spatial competition between two firms," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 207-227, April.
- Neven, Damien, 1985. "Two Stage (Perfect) Equilibrium in Hotelling's Model," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(3), pages 317-25, March.
- John R. Hauser, 1988. "Note—Competitive Price and Positioning Strategies," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 7(1), pages 76-91.
- Economides, Nicholas, 1993. "Quality variations in the circular model of variety-differentiated products," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 235-257, April.
- Caplin, Andrew & Nalebuff, Barry, 1991.
"Aggregation and Imperfect Competition: On the Existence of Equilibrium,"
Econometric Society, vol. 59(1), pages 25-59, January.
- Andrew Caplin & Barry Nalebuff, 1990. "Aggregation and Imperfect Competition: On the Existence of Equilibrium," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 937, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Caplin, A. & Nalebuff, B., 1989. "Aggregation And Imperfect Competition: On The Existence Of Equilibrium," Discussion Papers 1989_30, Columbia University, Department of Economics.
- K. Ravi Kumar & D. Sudharshan, 1988. "Defensive Marketing Strategies: An Equilibrium Analysis Based on Decoupled Response Function Models," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 34(7), pages 805-815, July.
- Green, Paul E & Srinivasan, V, 1978. " Conjoint Analysis in Consumer Research: Issues and Outlook," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 5(2), pages 103-23, Se.
- Economides, Nicholas, 1984. "The principle of minimum differentiation revisited," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 345-368, April.
- Economides, Nicholas, 1986. "Minimal and maximal product differentiation in Hotelling's duopoly," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 67-71.
- Steven C. Salop, 1979. "Monopolistic Competition with Outside Goods," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 10(1), pages 141-156, Spring.
- John R. Hauser & Steven M. Shugan, 2008.
"Defensive Marketing Strategies,"
INFORMS, vol. 27(1), pages 88-110, 01-02.
- Nicholas Economides, 1986. "Nash Equilibrium in Duopoly with Products Defined by Two Characteristics," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 17(3), pages 431-439, Autumn.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpio:9702001. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.