IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/spr/anresc/v50y2013i3p791-808.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The locations of firms on intersecting roadways

Author

Listed:
  • Ralph Braid

Abstract

With Bertrand-Nash mill-price competition, travel costs proportional to distance squared, and three firms on an interval, the equilibrium locations of the peripheral firms are further from the center than is socially optimal. If there is a central intersection, with four (or more) finite roadway segments radiating outward from the center (a small city spread along two intersecting roadways), and with one firm at the center and one on each radial segment, then the equilibrium locations of the peripheral firms are closer to the center than is socially optimal. Extensions include competition with spatial price discrimination, a more complicated system of intersecting roadways, and more than one firm on each roadway segment. Copyright Springer-Verlag 2013

Suggested Citation

  • Ralph Braid, 2013. "The locations of firms on intersecting roadways," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 50(3), pages 791-808, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:anresc:v:50:y:2013:i:3:p:791-808
    DOI: 10.1007/s00168-012-0508-2
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s00168-012-0508-2
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1007/s00168-012-0508-2?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Lederer, Phillip J & Hurter, Arthur P, Jr, 1986. "Competition of Firms: Discriminatory Pricing and Location," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(3), pages 623-640, May.
    2. MacLeod, W.B. & Norman, G. & Thisse, J.-F., 1988. "Price discrimination and equilibrium in monopolistic competition," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 429-446.
    3. Osborne, Martin J & Pitchik, Carolyn, 1987. "Equilibrium in Hotelling's Model of Spatial Competition," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(4), pages 911-922, July.
    4. Caplin, Andrew & Nalebuff, Barry, 1991. "Aggregation and Imperfect Competition: On the Existence of Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(1), pages 25-59, January.
    5. Braid, Ralph M., 1989. "Retail competition along intersecting roadways," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 107-112, February.
    6. Gupta, Barnali, 1992. "Sequential entry and deterrence with competitive spatial price discrimination," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 487-490, April.
    7. Hamilton, Jonathan H. & Thisse, Jacques-Francois & Weskamp, Anita, 1989. "Spatial discrimination : Bertrand vs. Cournot in a model of location choice," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 87-102, February.
    8. Chia‐Ming Yu, 2007. "Price and quantity competition yield the same location equilibria in a circular market," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 86(4), pages 643-655, November.
    9. Vickrey, William S. & Anderson, Simon P. & Braid, Ralph M., 1999. "Spatial competition, monopolistic competition, and optimum product diversity," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 17(7), pages 953-963, October.
    10. Ben-Akiva, Moshe & de Palma, Andre & Thisse, Jacques-Francois, 1989. "Spatial competition with differentiated products," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 5-19, February.
    11. Lambertini, Luca, 1997. "Unicity of the equilibrium in the unconstrained Hotelling model," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 785-798, November.
    12. Toshihiro Matsumura & Noriaki Matsushima, 2009. "Cost differentials and mixed strategy equilibria in a Hotelling model," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 43(1), pages 215-234, March.
    13. Egger, Hartmut & Egger, Peter, 2010. "The trade and welfare effects of mergers in space," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(4), pages 210-220, July.
    14. Capozza, Dennis R & Van Order, Robert, 1980. "Unique Equilibria, Pure Profits, and Efficiency in Location Models," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 1046-1053, December.
    15. Patrick J. DeGraba, 1987. "The Effects of Price Restrictions on Competition Between National and Local Firms," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 18(3), pages 333-347, Autumn.
    16. Hurter, Arthur Jr & Lederer, Phillip J., 1985. "Spatial duopoly with discriminatory pricing," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 541-553, November.
    17. Braid, Ralph M., 2008. "Spatial price discrimination and the locations of firms with different product selections or product varieties," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 98(3), pages 342-347, March.
    18. Heywood, John S. & Ye, Guangliang, 2009. "Mixed oligopoly and spatial price discrimination with foreign firms," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 592-601, September.
    19. Gordon F. Mulligan, 1996. "Myopic Spatial Competition: Boundary Effects And Network Solutions," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 75(2), pages 155-176, April.
    20. A. P. Lerner & H. W. Singer, 1937. "Some Notes on Duopoly and Spatial Competition," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(2), pages 145-145.
    21. Neven, Damien J., 1987. "Endogenous sequential entry in a spatial model," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 419-434.
    22. Ralph M. Braid, 2011. "Bertrand‐Nash mill pricing and the locations of two firms with partially overlapping product selections," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 90(1), pages 197-211, March.
    23. Steven C. Salop, 1979. "Monopolistic Competition with Outside Goods," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 10(1), pages 141-156, Spring.
    24. de Palma, A, et al, 1985. "The Principle of Minimum Differentiation Holds under Sufficient Heterogeneity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(4), pages 767-781, July.
    25. Economides, Nicholas, 1989. "Symmetric equilibrium existence and optimality in differentiated product markets," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 178-194, February.
    26. repec:ulb:ulbeco:2013/1759 is not listed on IDEAS
    27. d'Aspremont, C & Gabszewicz, Jean Jaskold & Thisse, J-F, 1979. "On Hotelling's "Stability in Competition"," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(5), pages 1145-1150, September.
    28. Meza, Sergio & Tombak, Mihkel, 2009. "Endogenous location leadership," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 687-707, November.
    29. Tabuchi, Takatoshi & Thisse, Jacques-Francois, 1995. "Asymmetric equilibria in spatial competition," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 213-227.
    30. Economides, Nicholas, 1986. "Minimal and maximal product differentiation in Hotelling's duopoly," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 67-71.
    31. Edgar M. Hoover, 1937. "Spatial Price Discrimination," The Review of Economic Studies, Review of Economic Studies Ltd, vol. 4(3), pages 182-191.
    32. B. Curtis Eaton & Myrna Holtz Wooders, 1985. "Sophisticated Entry in a Model of Spatial Competition," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 16(2), pages 282-297, Summer.
    33. Steffen Brenner, 2005. "Hotelling Games with Three, Four, and More Players," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(4), pages 851-864, November.
    34. Anderson, Simon P, 1988. "Equilibrium Existence in the Linear Model of Spatial Competition," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 55(220), pages 479-491, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Firgo, Matthias & Pennerstorfer, Dieter & Weiss, Christoph R., 2016. "Network centrality and market prices: Empirical evidence," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 79-83.
    2. Aizawa, Hiroki & Kono, Tatsuhito, 2022. "Two-dimensional Geographical Position as a Factor in Determining the Growth and Decline of Retail Agglomeration," MPRA Paper 112274, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ralph M. Braid, 2016. "Potential merger-forcing entry reduces maximum spacing between firms in spatial competition," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 95(3), pages 653-669, August.
    2. Ralph M. Braid, 2014. "Search costs decrease prices in a model of spatial competition," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 93(1), pages 125-139, March.
    3. Ralph Braid, 2014. "The socially optimal and equilibrium locations of two stores or libraries with consumer search," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 53(1), pages 123-136, August.
    4. John S. Heywood & Dongyang Li & Guangliang Ye, 2022. "Mixed duopoly under hotelling with convex production costs," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 69(2), pages 487-510, October.
    5. Ralph M. Braid, 2017. "Efficiency-enhancing horizontal mergers in spatial competition," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 96(4), pages 881-894, November.
    6. Vermeulen, Ben & La Poutré, Han & de Kok, Ton, 2012. "Dynamics and equilibria under incremental horizontal differentiation on the Salop circle," MPRA Paper 51449, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Eleftheriou, Konstantinos & Michelacakis, Nickolas, 2017. "Spatial Price Discrimination and Privatization on Vertically Related Markets," MPRA Paper 76964, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Gaëtan Fournier & Marco Scarsini, 2014. "Hotelling Games on Networks: Efficiency of Equilibria," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 14033, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
    9. Gupta, Barnali & Lai, Fu-Chuan & Pal, Debashis & Sarkar, Jyotirmoy & Yu, Chia-Ming, 2004. "Where to locate in a circular city?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 759-782, June.
    10. Eleftheriou, Konstantinos & Michelacakis, Nickolas, 2015. "A Unified Model of Spatial Price Discrimination," MPRA Paper 66557, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Lambertini, Luca, 2002. "Equilibrium locations in a spatial model with sequential entry in real time," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 47-58, January.
    12. Braid, Ralph M., 2004. "Uneven spacing in free-entry equilibrium for spatial product differentiation," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 84(2), pages 155-161, August.
    13. Brito, Duarte & Pereira, Pedro, 2009. "Product differentiation when competing with the suppliers of bottleneck inputs," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 43-53, January.
    14. Stefano Colombo, 2016. "A Model of Three Cities," International Regional Science Review, , vol. 39(4), pages 386-416, October.
    15. Ricardo Biscaia & Isabel Mota, 2013. "Models of spatial competition: A critical review," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 92(4), pages 851-871, November.
    16. Braid, Ralph M., 2008. "Spatial price discrimination and the locations of firms with different product selections or product varieties," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 98(3), pages 342-347, March.
    17. Torbenko, A., 2015. "Linear City Models: Overview and Typology," Journal of the New Economic Association, New Economic Association, vol. 25(1), pages 12-38.
    18. Konstantinos Eleftheriou & Nickolas J. Michelacakis, 2020. "Location decisions and welfare under spatial price discrimination," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 41(7), pages 1202-1210, October.
    19. Caplin, Andrew & Nalebuff, Barry, 1991. "Aggregation and Imperfect Competition: On the Existence of Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(1), pages 25-59, January.
    20. Auer, Raphael A. & Sauré, Philip, 2017. "Dynamic entry in vertically differentiated markets," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 167(C), pages 177-205.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    R32; L13; D43;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • R32 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location - - - Other Spatial Production and Pricing Analysis
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
    • D43 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:anresc:v:50:y:2013:i:3:p:791-808. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.