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The Trade and Welfare Effects of Mergers in Space

  • Hartmut Egger
  • Peter Egger

This paper analyzes the consequences of cross-border mergers in a spatial framework, thereby distinguishing three channels of influence: a price increase due to the elimination of product market competition, an adjustment in plant location which reduces overall transportation cost expenditures, and a harmonization in production costs due to a technology transfer within the firm. The welfare analysis illustrates that larger countries are better off after the merger. By contrast, smaller countries may lose, if the pre-merger production cost differential across firms is negligible and/or a post-merger technology transfer across production sites is infeasible. Furthermore, the analysis provides novel insights into the trade pattern effects of a merger. In this respect, the main result of the paper is that an adjustment of plant location in space can reverse the direction of (net) trade flows.

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Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 2217.

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Date of creation: 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_2217
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  1. Kamal Saggi & Halis Murat Yildiz, 2006. "On the International Linkages between Trade and Merger Policies," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(2), pages 212-225, 05.
  2. Haufler, A. & Schjelderup, G., 1999. "Corporate Tax Systems and Cross Country Profit Shifting," Papers 1/99, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration-.
  3. V.N. Balasubramanyam, 2008. "Foreign Direct Investment," Chapters, in: International Handbook of Development Economics, Volumes 1 & 2, chapter 39 Edward Elgar.
  4. Bjorvatn, Kjetil, 2004. "Economic integration and the profitability of cross-border mergers and acquisitions," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(6), pages 1211-1226, December.
  5. James R. Markusen & Anthony J. Venables, 1996. "The Theory of Endowment, Intra-Industry, and Multinational Trade," NBER Working Papers 5529, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. George Norman & Lynne Pepall, 2000. "Profitable Mergers in a Cournot Model of Spatial Competition," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 66(3), pages 667-681, January.
  7. Huck, Steffen & Konrad, Kai A., 2001. "Merger profitability and trade policy
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    ," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Market Processes and Governance FS IV 01-12, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  8. Posada, Pedro & Straume, Odd Rune, 2002. "Merger, partial collusion and relocation," Working Papers in Economics 23/02, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
  9. Horn, Henrik & Persson, Lars, 1999. "The Equilibrium Ownership of an International Oligopoly," Working Paper Series 515, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  10. Raymond Deneckere & Carl Davidson, 1985. "Incentives to Form Coalitions with Bertrand Competition," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 16(4), pages 473-486, Winter.
  11. Markusen, James R. & Venables, Anthony J., 1998. "Multinational firms and the new trade theory," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 183-203, December.
  12. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:12:y:2005:i:7:p:1-10 is not listed on IDEAS
  13. J. Peter Neary, 2007. "Cross-Border Mergers as Instruments of Comparative Advantage," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 74(4), pages 1229-1257.
  14. Andreea Cosnita, 2004. "Horizontal mergers in the circular city : a note," Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques v04014, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
  15. Shachmurove, Yochanan & Spiegel, Uriel, 1995. "On Nations' Size and Transportation Costs," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 3(2), pages 235-43, June.
  16. Hartmut Egger & Peter Egger, 2004. "Outsourcing and Trade in a Spatial World," CESifo Working Paper Series 1349, CESifo Group Munich.
  17. Brouwer, A.E. & Mariotti, I. & Ommeren, J.N. van, 2003. "The firm relocation decision: an empirical investigation," Serie Research Memoranda 0023, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
  18. Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2005. "A Spatial Theory of Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(5), pages 1464-1491, December.
  19. Volker Nocke & Stephen Yeaple, 2008. "An Assignment Theory of Foreign Direct Investment," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 75(2), pages 529-557.
  20. Tharakan, Joe & Thisse, Jacques-François, 2001. "The Importance of Being Small. Or When Countries are Areas and not Points," CEPR Discussion Papers 2938, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  21. Long, Ngo Van & Vousden, Neil, 1995. "The Effects of Trade Liberalization on Cost-Reducing Horizontal Mergers," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 3(2), pages 141-55, June.
  22. Girma, Sourafel & Görg, Holger, 2006. "Multinationals' Productivity Advantage: Scale or Technology," CEPR Discussion Papers 5841, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  23. repec:oup:qjecon:v:98:y:1983:i:2:p:185-99 is not listed on IDEAS
  24. Alexander Hijzen & Holger G�rg & Miriam Manchin, 2006. "Cross-border mergers and acquisitions and the role of trade costs," European Economy - Economic Papers 242, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
  25. Rod Falvey, 1998. "Mergers in Open Economies," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(8), pages 1061-1076, November.
  26. Nocke, Volker & Yeaple, Stephen, 2007. "Cross-border mergers and acquisitions vs. greenfield foreign direct investment: The role of firm heterogeneity," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 336-365, July.
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