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Trade Integration, Outsourcing and Employment in Austria: A Decomposition Approach


  • Wolfgang Koller
  • Robert Stehrer

    () (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)


In this paper we study the employment effects of changes in the levels and patterns of trade integration and outsourcing in the Austrian economy over the periods 1995-2000 and 2000-2005. Based on an input-output framework, we apply a hierarchical decomposition analysis to disentangle the employment effects of changes in labour productivity, technical input coefficients and final demand components. Outsourcing is modelled as changes in the shares of domestically produced intermediates. For this some further details can be derived by distinguishing between intermediate imports according to educational intensities of the imported intermediate products. A similar decomposition of the final demand vector allows then to draw conclusions on the employment effects of overall trade integration over this period. We further calculate the employment effects, distinguishing three employment groups by educational attainment levels. The results suggest that the overall employment effect of trade integration has been positive in general. On top of that we do not find that the unskilled workers are hurt more than the other two skill groups. Further we find a distinct pattern of employment effects in the two periods considered In the period 1995-2000 we observe relatively strong positive employment effects in the production of high skill intensive products and negligible effects in the production of low skill intensive products. However, this pattern changed in the period 2000-2005 where strong positive employment effects are found in the latter but even negative employment effects in the production of high skill intensive commodities.

Suggested Citation

  • Wolfgang Koller & Robert Stehrer, 2009. "Trade Integration, Outsourcing and Employment in Austria: A Decomposition Approach," wiiw Working Papers 56, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
  • Handle: RePEc:wii:wpaper:56

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Skolka, Jiri, 1989. "Input-output structural decomposition analysis for Austria," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 45-66.
    2. Brian Wixted & Norihiko Yamano & Colin Webb, 2006. "Input-Output Analysis in an Increasingly Globalised World: Applications of OECD's Harmonised International Tables," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2006/7, OECD Publishing.
    3. Michael Peneder, 2007. "A sectoral taxonomy of educational intensity," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 34(3), pages 189-212, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Mahlberg, Bernhard & Luptacik, Mikulas, 2014. "Eco-efficiency and eco-productivity change over time in a multisectoral economic system," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 234(3), pages 885-897.
    2. repec:spr:jecstr:v:6:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1186_s40008-017-0079-6 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Fujii Gambero, Gerardo & Cervantes M., Rosario & Fabián Rojas, Ana Sofía, 2016. "The labour content of Mexican manufactures, 2008 and 2012," Revista CEPAL, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), August.
    4. Monarch, Ryan & Park, Jooyoun & Sivadasan, Jagadeesh, 2017. "Domestic gains from offshoring? Evidence from TAA-linked U.S. microdata," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 150-173.

    More about this item


    outsourcing; offshoring; employment effects; hierarchical decomposition; input-output modelling;

    JEL classification:

    • C67 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Input-Output Models
    • D57 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Input-Output Tables and Analysis
    • F16 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Labor Market Interactions

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