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Worker Morale in Russia: An Exploratory Study

  • Susan J. linz


  • Linda K. Good


  • Patricia Huddleston


Despite unanimous agreement in the existing literature that morale influences employee performance, no well-defined measure of morale exists. Our study develops a robust measure of morale and focuses on the factors that influence morale among Russian workers. Survey data were collected from Russian employees at two different points in time, 1995 and 2002, in five Russian cities. Among the workers participating in our study, expectation of receiving a desired reward contributes to high morale, with expected monetary rewards having a larger influence than expected non-monetary rewards, but praise for a job well done and a feeling of accomplishment also contribute positively to employee morale. There is a significant correlation between positive attitudes toward work and morale, and a positive correlation between performance assessment and morale. Demographic characteristics (age and gender) have no discernable influence on morale when controls are included for work experience.

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Paper provided by William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan in its series William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series with number 816.

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Length: pages
Date of creation: 01 Jan 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wdi:papers:2006-816
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  1. Linz, Susan J, 1995. "Do Job Rights Govern Employment Patterns in Transition Economies?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(2), pages 425-31, May.
  2. Linz, Susan J., 2004. "Motivating Russian workers: analysis of age and gender differences," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 261-289, July.
  3. Linz, S.J., 1993. "Gender Differences in the Russian Labour Market," Papers 9208, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory.
  4. Gary Krueger & Susan J. Linz, 2000. "Virtual Reality: Barter and Restructuring in Russian Industry," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 465, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  5. Norsworthy, J. R. & Zabala, C. A., 1982. "A note on introducing a measure of worker attitude in cost function estimation," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 10(1-2), pages 185-191.
  6. Norsworthy, J R & Zabala, Craig A, 1990. "Worker Attitudes and the Cost of Production: Hypothesis Tests in an Equilibrium Model," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 28(1), pages 57-78, January.
  7. Bakacsi, Gyula & Sándor, Takács & András, Karácsonyi & Viktor, Imrek, 2002. "Eastern european cluster: tradition and transition," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 69-80, April.
  8. Susan J. Linz, 2002. "Job Satisfaction Among Russian Workers," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 468, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  9. Peter Howitt, 2002. "Looking Inside the Labor Market: A Review Article," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 40(1), pages 125-138, March.
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