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Job Satisfaction Among Russian Workers


  • Susan J. Linz



Why do Russians work without wages? This paper investigates the extent to which job satisfaction and attitude toward work in general may account for the observed behavior of Russian workers. To analyze the level and determinants of job satisfaction among Russian workers, this paper utilizes survey data collected from 1,200 workers and managers employed in seventy-six organizations in Moscow, Saratov and Taganrog The paper is divided into five parts. Part 1 presents the three measures of job satisfaction used in this analysis. Response patterns, analyzed by occupational status, gender, and generation, are discussed. Part 2 first explores gender and generational differences in attitudes toward work in general, and then examines the relationship between attitude toward work and job satisfaction. The results indicate that both gender and generation are significant in response patterns regarding attitudes toward work. Generational differences also are significant in response patterns relating the results of working hard to performance, productivity, and doing the job well. Regression analysis documents the positive relationship between attitude toward work and the level of job satisfaction. Part 3 focuses on the relationship between job satisfaction and performance. Three noteworthy results emerge. First, regardless of the specification or measure, there is a strong positive correlation between job satisfaction and performance. The relationship is not affected by gender, age, or educational attainment level of the respondents. Second, it is not possible using these data to establish causality between job satisfaction and performance. It appears, instead, that unspecified factors may be affecting the two conditions simultaneously. Finally, the results generated from these data are not significantly different from results based on previous surveys of U.S. workers, as well as a survey completed in 1996 of Russian and Polish workers. Part 4 analyzes the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Among the workers participating in this survey there is, generally, only a moderate degree of organizational commitment. Commitment is highest among workers who feel they are making a contribution. The results document a positive relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment, although the causality is not well-defined. Concluding remarks are offered in Part 5.

Suggested Citation

  • Susan J. Linz, 2002. "Job Satisfaction Among Russian Workers," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 468, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  • Handle: RePEc:wdi:papers:2002-468

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ben-Bakr, Khaled A. & Al-Shammari, Id S. & Jefri, Omar A. & Prasad, Jyoti N., 1994. "Organizational commitment, satisfaction, and turnover in Saudi organizations: A predictive study," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 449-456.
    2. Linz, Susan J, 1995. "Russian Labor Market in Transition," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 43(4), pages 693-716, July.
    3. Gimpelson, Vladimir & Lippoldt, Douglas, 1999. "Labour Turnover in Russia: Evidence from the Administrative Reporting of Enterprises in Four Regions," Transition Economics Series 4, Institute for Advanced Studies.
    4. repec:mes:jeciss:v:30:y:1996:i:1:p:161-185 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Linz, Susan J, 1995. "Do Job Rights Govern Employment Patterns in Transition Economies?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(2), pages 425-431, May.
    6. Sousa-Poza, Alfonso & Sousa-Poza, Andres A., 2000. "Well-being at work: a cross-national analysis of the levels and determinants of job satisfaction," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 517-538, November.
    7. Linz, S.J., 1993. "Gender Differences in the Russian Labour Market," Papers 9208, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory.
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    Cited by:

    1. Aysit Tansel & Saziye Gazîoglu, 2014. "Management-employee relations, firm size and job satisfaction," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 35(8), pages 1260-1275, October.
    2. Inmaculada García & José Molina & María Navarro, 2007. "How Satisfied are Spouses with their Leisure Time? Evidence from Europe," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 28(4), pages 546-565, December.
    3. Stefanos K. Giannikis & Dimitrios M. Mihail, 2010. "Motivation of working women in the Greek retail sector: an empirical analysis," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 31(1), pages 4-20, March.
    4. Sánchez Cañizares, Sandra Mª & Artacho Ruiz, Carlos & Fuentes García, Fernando J. & López-Guzmán Guzmán,Tomás J., 2007. "Análisis de los determinantes estructurales de la satisfacción laboral. Aplicación en el sector educativo/Analizing the Structural Determinants of Job Satisfaction. An Application in the Educational F," Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, vol. 25, pages 887-900, Diciembre.
    5. Susan J. linz & Linda K. Good & Patricia Huddleston, 2006. "Worker Morale in Russia: An Exploratory Study," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 816, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    6. Khalid Rehman & Zia-Ur-Rehman & Naveed Saif & Abdul Sattar Khan & Allah Nawaz & Shafiq ur Rehman, 2013. "Impacts of Job Satisfaction on Organizational Commitment: A Theoretical Model for Academicians in HEI of Developing Countries like Pakistan," International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society, International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, vol. 3(1), pages 80-89, January.
    7. Vani K. Borooah, 2009. "Comparing levels of job satisfaction in the countries of Western and Eastern Europe," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 30(4), pages 304-325, July.
    8. Benno Torgler, 2011. "Work Values in Western and Eastern Europe," Working Papers 2011.94, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    9. Pablo Ruiz-Palomino & Ricardo Martínez-Cañas & Joan Fontrodona, 2013. "Ethical Culture and Employee Outcomes: The Mediating Role of Person-Organization Fit," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 116(1), pages 173-188, August.
    10. Francesco Bartolucci & Aleksandra Baschina & Giovanni S. F. Bruno & Olga Demidova & Marcello Signorelli, 2015. "Determinants of Job Satisfaction in Young Russian Workers," Discussion Papers 7_2015, CRISEI, University of Naples "Parthenope", Italy.
    11. Azman Ismail & Nurrul Hayati Adnan & Rizal Abu Bakar, 2014. "Perceived Career Development Support In Workplace Career Programme," Economic Annals, Faculty of Economics, University of Belgrade, vol. 59(201), pages 157-176, April – J.

    More about this item


    Russia; job satisfaction; performance; organizational commitment;

    JEL classification:

    • J28 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Safety; Job Satisfaction; Related Public Policy
    • P23 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - Factor and Product Markets; Industry Studies; Population

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