IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Financial globalization in emerging countries : diversification vs. offshoring

  • Ceballos, Francisco
  • Didier, Tatiana
  • Schmukler, Sergio L.

Financial globalization has gathered attention since the early 1990s because of its macro-financial implications and growing importance. But financial globalization has taken shape via different forms over time. This paper examines two important, concurrent dimensions of financial globalization: diversification and offshoring. The diversification dimension refers to the increase in foreign assets and liabilities in countries'portfolios. Offshoring is related to the reallocation of financial activities to international markets. The former focuses on who holds the assets, the latter on where transactions take place. The authors find that globalization via the diversification channel expanded throughout the world during the 2000s, as domestic residents invested more abroad and foreigners increased their investments at home, generating more cross-border holdings. However, financial globalization via offshoring displays more mixed patterns, with variations across markets and countries. The paper also shows that the nature of financing through both diversification and offshoring has improved for emerging countries.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 6105.

in new window

Date of creation: 01 Jun 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6105
Contact details of provider: Postal:
1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433

Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Eduardo Levy Yeyati & Tomas Williams, 2014. "Financial Globalization in Emerging Economies: Much Ado About Nothing?," ECONOMIA JOURNAL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION, ECONOMIA JOURNAL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION, vol. 0(Spring 20), pages 91-131, January.
  2. Fernando A. Broner & R. Gaston Gelos & Carmen Reinhart, 2004. "When in Peril, Retrench: Testing the Portfolio Channel of Contagion," NBER Working Papers 10941, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Fernando Broner & Tatiana Didier & Aitor Erce & Sergio L. Schmukler, 2011. "Gross capital flows: dynamics and crises," Working Papers 1039, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
  4. Didier, Tatiana & Schmukler, Sergio L., 2013. "Financial development in Latin America and the Caribbean : stylized facts and the road ahead," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6582, The World Bank.
  5. Kaminsky, Graciela & Lyons, Richard K. & Schmukler, Sergio L., 2004. "Managers, investors, and crises: mutual fund strategies in emerging markets," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 113-134, October.
  6. Philip R Lane & Gian Maria Milesi-Ferretti, 2011. "The Cross-Country Incidence of the Global Crisis," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 59(1), pages 77-110, April.
  7. Philip Lane & Gian Maria Milesi-Ferretti, 2001. "THE EXTERNAL WEALTH OF NATIONS: Measures of Foreign Assets and Liabilities For Industrial and Developing Countries," CEG Working Papers 20012, Trinity College Dublin, Department of Economics.
  8. Brian J. Henderson & Narasimhan Jegadeesh & Michael S. Weisbach, 2004. "World Markets for Raising New Capital," NBER Working Papers 10225, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Michael B Devereux, 2007. "Financial Globalization and Emerging Market Portfolios," IMES Discussion Paper Series 07-E-13, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan.
  10. Philip R. Lane & Gian Maria Milesi-Ferretti, 2006. "The External Wealth of Nations Mark II: Revised and Extended Estimates of Foreign Assets and Liabilities,1970–2004," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp126, IIIS.
  11. Joshua Aizenman & Gurnain Kaur Pasricha, 2011. "Determinants of Financial Stress and Recovery during the Great Recession," Staff Working Papers 11-24, Bank of Canada.
  12. Gozzi, Juan Carlos & Levine, Ross & Peria, Maria Soledad Martinez & Schmukler, Sergio L., 2012. "How firms use domestic and international corporate bond markets," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6209, The World Bank.
  13. Peter Henry, 2007. "Capital Account Liberalization: Theory, Evidence, and Speculation," Discussion Papers 07-004, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
  14. Maria Soledad Martinez Peria & Andrew Powell & Ivanna Vladkova-Hollar, 2005. "Banking on Foreigners: The Behavior of International Bank Claims on Latin America, 1985–2000," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 52(3), pages 4.
  15. Aart Kraay & Norman Loayza & Luis Servén & Jaume Ventura, 2000. "Country portfolios," Economics Working Papers 913, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  16. Henry, Peter B., 2006. "Capital Account Liberalization: Theory, Evidence, and Speculation," Research Papers 1951, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
  17. Errunza, Vihang R. & Miller, Darius P., 2000. "Market Segmentation and the Cost of the Capital in International Equity Markets," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 35(04), pages 577-600, December.
  18. Levine, Ross, 2001. "International Financial Liberalization and Economic Growth," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(4), pages 688-702, November.
  19. Hargis, Kent, 2000. "International cross-listing and stock market development in emerging economies," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 101-122.
  20. Eduardo Borensztein & R. Gaston Gelos, 2003. "A Panic-Prone Pack? The Behavior of Emerging Market Mutual Funds," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 50(1), pages 3.
  21. Ian Domowitz & Jack Glen & Ananth Madhavan, 1998. "International Cross-Listing and Order Flow Migration: Evidence from an Emerging Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(6), pages 2001-2027, December.
  22. Stephen R. Foerster & G. Andrew Karolyi, 1999. "The Effects of Market Segmentation and Investor Recognition on Asset Prices: Evidence from Foreign Stocks Listing in the United States," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(3), pages 981-1013, 06.
  23. Reinhart, Carmen & Kaminsky, Graciela, 1998. "On crises, contagion, and confusion," MPRA Paper 13709, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  24. Obstfeld, Maurice, 2012. "Financial flows, financial crises, and global imbalances," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 469-480.
  25. Jeffrey A. Frankel & George Saravelos, 2010. "Are Leading Indicators of Financial Crises Useful for Assessing Country Vulnerability? Evidence from the 2008-09 Global Crisis," NBER Working Papers 16047, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  26. Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Guillermo, 2000. "When Capital Inflows Come to a Sudden Stop: Consequences and Policy Options," MPRA Paper 6982, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  27. Obstfeld,Maurice & Taylor,Alan M., 2005. "Global Capital Markets," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521671798, November.
  28. Errunza, Vihang, 2001. "Foreign Portfolio Equity Investments, Financial Liberalization, and Economic Development," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(4), pages 703-26, November.
  29. Didier, Tatiana & Hevia, Constantino & Schmukler, Sergio L., 2011. "How resilient and countercyclical were emerging economies to the global financial crisis ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5637, The World Bank.
  30. Alexander, Gordon J & Eun, Cheol S & Janakiramanan, S, 1987. " Asset Pricing and Dual Listing on Foreign Capital Markets: A Note," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(1), pages 151-58, March.
  31. Reinhart, Carmen & Reinhart, Vincent, 2008. "From Capital Flow Bonanza to Financial Crash," MPRA Paper 11866, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  32. Rene M. Stulz, 1999. "Globalization of Equity Markets and the Cost of Capital," NBER Working Papers 7021, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  33. Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad & Powell, Andrew & Hollar, Ivanna Vladkova, 2002. "Banking on foreigners : the behavior of international Bank lending to Latin America, 1985-2000," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2893, The World Bank.
  34. Allen, Franklin & Gale, Douglas, 2000. "Bubbles and Crises," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(460), pages 236-55, January.
  35. Rudger Dornbusch & Ilan Goldfajn & Rodrigo O. Valdés, 1995. "Currency Crises and Collapses," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(2), pages 219-294.
  36. Kristin J. Forbes, 2005. "The Microeconomic Evidence on Capital Controls: No Free Lunch," NBER Working Papers 11372, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6105. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.