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Creating jobs in South Asia's conflict zones

Author

Listed:
  • Iyer, Lakshmi
  • Santos, Indhira

Abstract

This paper describes the key challenges to job creation in conflict-affected environments in South Asia. It uses household survey data since the early 2000s for Afghanistan, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka to document the characteristics of labor markets in conflict-affected areas, exploiting the spatial and time variation in armed conflict within countries. The analysis finds that, across countries, labor markets look very different in conflict-affected areas when compared with non-conflict or low-conflict areas. Employment rates are higher in large part because women participate more in the labor market, but work tends to be more vulnerable, with more self-employment and unpaid family work. The authors show that these differences often pre-date the conflict but are also exacerbated by it. They also examine the constraints on the private sector activity in such areas, using firm surveys when possible. Finally, the paper reviews the existing literature and the policy experiences of several countries to draw some policy implications for job creation efforts in the conflict-affected areas of South Asia. It particularly highlights the role of the private sector and community initiatives, in conjunction with public policies, to improve the environment for successful job creation.

Suggested Citation

  • Iyer, Lakshmi & Santos, Indhira, 2012. "Creating jobs in South Asia's conflict zones," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6104, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6104
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Andrew Beath & Fotini Christia & Ruben Enikolopov, 2013. "Randomized Impact Evaluation of Afghanistan's National Solidarity Programme," World Bank Other Operational Studies 16637, The World Bank.
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    3. Akresh, Richard & de Walque, Damien, 2008. "Armed Conflict and Schooling: Evidence from the 1994 Rwandan Genocide," IZA Discussion Papers 3516, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    4. Shemyakina, Olga, 2011. "The effect of armed conflict on accumulation of schooling: Results from Tajikistan," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 186-200, July.
    5. Chauvet, Lisa & Collier, Paul & Duponchel, Marguerite, 2010. "What explains aid project success in post-conflict situations ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5418, The World Bank.
    6. Philip Verwimp, 2003. "Micro-level Evidence from Rwanda," HiCN Working Papers 08, Households in Conflict Network.
    7. Oeindrila Dube & Juan F. Vargas, 2013. "Commodity Price Shocks and Civil Conflict: Evidence from Colombia," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 80(4), pages 1384-1421.
    8. Humberto Lopez & Quentin Wodon, 2005. "The Economic Impact of Armed Conflict in Rwanda," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 14(4), pages 586-602, December.
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    11. Carlo del Ninno & Kalanidhi Subbarao & Annamaria Milazzo, 2009. "How to Make Public Works Work : A Review of the Experiences," World Bank Other Operational Studies 11718, The World Bank.
    12. Lakshmi Iyer, 2009. "The Bloody Millennium: Internal Conflict in South Asia," Harvard Business School Working Papers 09-086, Harvard Business School.
    13. World Bank, 2001. "Nepal : Priorities and Strategies for Education Reform," World Bank Other Operational Studies 15507, The World Bank.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ciarli, Tommaso & Kofol, Chiara & Menon, Carlo, 2015. "Business as unusual. An explanation of the increase of private economic activity in high-conflict areas in Afghanistan," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 65015, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    2. Patricia Justino, 2012. "Nutrition, Governance and Violence: A Framework for the Analysis of Resilience and Vulnerability to Food Insecurity in Contexts of Violent Conflict," HiCN Working Papers 132, Households in Conflict Network.
    3. World Bank Group, 2015. "Toward Solutions for Youth Employment," World Bank Other Operational Studies 23261, The World Bank.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Post Conflict Reconstruction; Population Policies; Labor Markets; Environmental Economics&Policies; Rural Poverty Reduction;

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