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Investing in Indonesia's education : allocation, equity, and efficiency of public expenditures

Author

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  • Arze del Granado, F. Javier
  • Fengler, Wolfgang
  • Ragatz, Andy
  • Yavuz, Elif

Abstract

What are the current trends and main characteristics of public education spending in Indonesia? Is education spending insufficient? Are expenditures in education efficient and equitable? This study reports the first account of Indonesia's aggregated (national and sub-national) spending on education, as well as the economic composition of education spending and its breakdown by programs. It presents estimations of the expected (average) level of education spending for a country with its economic and social characteristics. This analysis sheds light on the efficiency and equity of education spending by presenting social rates of return by level of education, by assessing the adequacy of current teacher earnings relative to other paid workers and the distribution of teachers across urban, rural, and remote regions, and by identifying the main determinants of education enrollment. It concludes that the current challenges in Indonesia are no longer defined by the need of additional spending, but rather the need to improve the quality of education services, and to improve the efficiency of education expenditures by re-allocating teachers to undersupplied regions and re-adjusting the spending mix within and between education programs for future additional spending in the sector. The study finds that poverty and student-aged labor are also significant constraints to education enrollment, stressing the importance of policies aimed at addressing demand-side factors.

Suggested Citation

  • Arze del Granado, F. Javier & Fengler, Wolfgang & Ragatz, Andy & Yavuz, Elif, 2007. "Investing in Indonesia's education : allocation, equity, and efficiency of public expenditures," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4329, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4329
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. World Bank, 2006. "Making the New Indonesia Work for the Poor," World Bank Other Operational Studies 8172, The World Bank.
    2. McMahon, Walter W. & Boediono, Walter W., 1992. "Universal basic education: An overall strategy of investment priorities for economic growth," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 137-151, June.
    3. F. Javier Arze del Granado & Jorge Martinez-Vazquez & Robert McNab, 2005. "Fiscal Decentralization and The Functional Composition of Public Expenditures (2005)," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0501, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
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    Cited by:

    1. Indunil De Silva & Sudarno Sumarto, 2015. "How do Educational Transfers Affect Child Labour Supply and Expenditures? Evidence from Indonesia of Impact and Flypaper Effects," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(4), pages 483-507, December.
    2. Mohamad Fahmi & Ben Satriatna, 2013. "Development in Education Sector: Are the Poor Catching Up?," Working Papers in Economics and Development Studies (WoPEDS) 201315, Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University, revised Jul 2013.
    3. Leer, Jane, 2016. "After the Big Bang: Estimating the effects of decentralization on educational outcomes in Indonesia through a difference-in-differences analysis," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 80-90.
    4. Tobing, Elwin, 2011. "Taxation, human capital formation, and long-run growth with private investment in education," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 48-60, February.
    5. Sumarto, Sudarno & de Silva, Indunil, 2013. "Education Transfers, expenditures and child labour supply in Indonesia: An evaluationof impacts and flypaper effects," MPRA Paper 57132, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Education For All; Primary Education; Tertiary Education; Teaching and Learning;

    JEL classification:

    • H41 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods - - - Public Goods
    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy
    • I22 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Educational Finance; Financial Aid

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