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Protection, openness, and factor adjustment : evidence from the manufacturing sector in Uruguay

Listed author(s):
  • Casacuberta, Carlos
  • Gandelman, Nestor

The authors use a panel of manufacturing firms to analyze the adjustment process in capital blue collar and white collar employment in Uruguay during a period of trade liberalization when average tariff protection fell from 43 to 14 percent. They calculate the desired factor levels arising from a counterfactual profit maximization in the absence of adjustment costs, generating a measure of factor shortages or surpluses. The average estimated output gap for 1982-95 is 2 percent. The authors'policy analysis shows that trade openness affected the adjustment functions of all three factors of production.Highly protected sectors adjust less when creating jobs (reducing labor shortages) than sectors with low protection. This may be due to fears of policy reversal in highly protected sectors. Also, highly protected sectors adjust more easily (than low protection sectors) when destroying jobs (reducing labor surpluses), especially in the case of blue collar labor. This suggests that trade protection may in fact destroy rather than create jobs within industries, as firms in highly protected sectors are more reluctant to hire and more ready to fire than firms in sectors with low protection. The results for capital are qualitatively similar but quantitatively smaller, suggesting that trade protection plays less of a role in explaining adjustment costs for capital. Interestingly, export-oriented sectors have lower adjustment costs for blue collar labor but not for white collar employment or capital, suggesting that export-led growth may be particularly successful in reducing blue collar unemployment.

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Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 3891.

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Date of creation: 01 Apr 2006
Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3891
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  1. Gueorgui Kambourov, 2009. "Labour Market Regulations and the Sectoral Reallocation of Workers: The Case of Trade Reforms," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 76(4), pages 1321-1358.
  2. Ricardo J. Caballero & Eduardo M. R. A. Engel, 1993. "Microeconomic Adjustment Hazards and Aggregate Dynamics," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(2), pages 359-383.
  3. Matusz, Steven J, 1998. "Calibrating the Employment Effects of Trade," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(4), pages 592-603, November.
  4. Russell W. Cooper & Jonathan L. Willis, 2001. "The economics of labor adjustment : mind the gap," Research Working Paper RWP 01-06, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
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  7. Carlos Casacuberta & Gabriela Fachola & Néstor Gandelman, 2011. "Employment, Capital, And Productivity Dynamics: Evidence From The Manufacturing Sector In Uruguay," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 49(3), pages 266-296, 09.
  8. Carlos Casacuberta & Gabriela Fachola & Nestor Gandelman, 2004. "The impact of trade liberalization on employment, capital, and productivity dynamics: evidence from the uruguayan manufacturing sector," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(4), pages 225-248.
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  16. repec:rus:hseeco:122439 is not listed on IDEAS
  17. Bils, Mark, 1987. "The Cyclical Behavior of Marginal Cost and Price," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(5), pages 838-855, December.
  18. Adriana Cassoni & Gastón J. Labadie & Gabriela Fachola, 2002. "The Economic Effects of Unions in Latin America: Their Impact on Wages and the Economic Performance of Firms in Uruguay," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 43358, Inter-American Development Bank.
  19. Ricardo J. Caballero & Eduardo M. R. A. Engel & John C. Haltiwanger, 1995. "Plant-Level Adjustment and Aggregate Investment Dynamics," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(2), pages 1-54.
  20. Erhan Artuç & Shubham Chaudhuri & John McLaren, 2010. "Trade Shocks and Labor Adjustment: A Structural Empirical Approach," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(3), pages 1008-1045, June.
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  23. Robert E. Hall, 2004. "Measuring Factor Adjustment Costs," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(3), pages 899-927.
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