Quantifying the impact of services liberalization in a developing country
The authors consider how service liberalization differs from goods liberalization in terms of welfare, the level and composition of output, and factor prices within a developing economy, in this case Tunisia. Despite recent movements toward liberalization, Tunisian service sectors remain largely closed to foreign participation and are provided at high cost relative to many developing nations. The authors develop a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Tunisian economy with multiple products and services and three trading partners. They model goods liberalization as the unilateral removal of product tariffs. Restraints on services trade involve both restrictions on cross-border supply (mode 1 in the GATS) and on foreign ownership through foreign direct investment (mode 3 in the GATS). The former are modeled as tariff-equivalent price wedges while the latter are comprised of both monopoly-rent distortions (arising from imperfect competition among domestic producers) andinefficiency costs (arising from a failure of domestic service providers to adopt least-cost practices). They find that goods-trade liberalization yields a gain in aggregate welfare and reorients production toward sectors of benchmark comparative advantage. However, a reduction of services barriers in a way that permits greater competition through foreign direct investment generates larger welfare gains. Service liberalization also requires lower adjustment costs, measured in terms of sectoral movement of workers, than does goods-trade liberalization. And it tends to increase economic activity in all sectors and raise the real returns to both capital and labor. The overall welfare gains of comprehensive service liberalization amount to more than 5 percent of initial consumption. The bulk of these gains come from opening markets for finance, business services, and telecommunications. Because these are key inputs into all sectors of the economy, their liberalization cuts costs and drives larger efficiency gains overall. The results point to the potential importance of deregulating services provision for economic development.
|Date of creation:||15 Jan 2003|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433|
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- James R. Markusen & Thomas F. Rutherford & David Tarr, 2000.
"Foreign Direct Investments in Services and the Domestic Market for Expertise,"
NBER Working Papers
7700, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Markusen, James & Rutherford, Thomas F. & Tarr, David, 2000. "Foreign direct investment in services and the domestic market for expertise," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2413, The World Bank.
- Harris, Richard, 1984.
"Applied General Equilibrium Analysis of Small Open Economies with Scale Economies and Imperfect Competition,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 74(5), pages 1016-32, December.
- Richard Harris, 1983. "Applied General Equilibrium Analysis of Small Open Economies with Scale Economies and Imperfect Competition," Working Papers 524, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
- Djankov, Simeon & Hoekman, Bernard, 1995.
"Catching Up With Eastern Europe? The European Union's Mediterranean Free Trade Initiative,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
1300, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Hoekman, Bernard & Djankov, Simeon, 1996. "Catching up with Eastern Europe? The European Union's Mediterranean free trade initiative," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1562, The World Bank.
- B. Hoekman & S. Djankov, 1996. "Catching Up With Eastern Europe? The European Union's Mediterranean Free Trade Initiative," Working Papers 9612, Economic Research Forum, revised Apr 1996.
- Bernard Hoekman, 2000. "The next round of services negotiations: identifying priorities and options," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jul, pages 31-52.
- Konan, Denise Eby & Maskus, Keith E., 2000.
"Joint trade liberalization and tax reform in a small open economy: the case of Egypt,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 365-392, April.
- Denise Eby Konan & Keith Maskus, 1997. "Joint Trade Liberalization and Tax Reform in a Small Open Economy: The Case of Egypt," Working Papers 199703-R, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Economics.
- Hoekman, Bernard, 1995.
"Tentative First Steps: An Assessment of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Services,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
1150, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Hoekman, Bernard, 1995. "Tentative first steps : an assessment of the Uruguay Round agreement on services," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1455, The World Bank.
- Drusilla K. Brown & Robert M. Stern, 2000.
"Measurement and Modeling of the Economic Effects of Trade and Investment Barriers in Services,"
Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University
0001, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
- Brown, Drusilla K & Stern, Robert M, 2001. "Measurement and Modeling of the Economic Effects of Trade and Investment Barriers in Services," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(2), pages 262-86, May.
- Brown, D.K. & Stern, R.M., 1999. "Measurement and Modeling of the Economic Effects of Trade and Investment Barriers in Services," Working Papers 453, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
- Paul M. Romer, 1993.
"New Goods, Old Theory, and the Welfare Costs of Trade Restrictions,"
NBER Working Papers
4452, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Romer, Paul, 1994. "New goods, old theory, and the welfare costs of trade restrictions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 5-38, February.
- Maskus, Keith E & Konan, Denise Eby, 1997. "Trade Liberalization in Egypt," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 1(3), pages 275-93, October.
- Timothy J. Kehoe, 2003.
"An evaluation of the performance of applied general equilibrium models of the impact of NAFTA,"
320, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Timothy J. Kehoe, 2003. "An Evaluation of the Performance of Applied General Equilibrium Models of the Impact of NAFTA," Levine's Working Paper Archive 506439000000000525, David K. Levine.
- Joseph Francois & Ian Wooton, 2000.
"Market Structure, Trade Liberalization and the GATS,"
Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers
00-059/2, Tinbergen Institute.
- Francois, Joseph & Wooton, Ian, 2001. "Market structure, trade liberalization and the GATS," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 389-402, June.
- Francois, Joseph & Wooton, Ian, 2001. "Market Structure, Trade Liberalization, and the GATS," CEPR Discussion Papers 2669, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Sherman Robinson & Zhi Wang & Will Martin, 2002. "Capturing the Implications of Services Trade Liberalization," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(1), pages 3-33.
- Hertel, Thomas, 1997. "Global Trade Analysis: Modeling and applications," GTAP Books, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, number 7685.
- James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2001.
"Borders, Trade and Welfare,"
Boston College Working Papers in Economics
508, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Markusen, James R, 1989. "Trade in Producer Services and in Other Specialized Intermediate Inputs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 85-95, March.
- de Melo, Jaime & Robinson, Sherman, 1989. "Product differentiation and the treatment of foreign trade in computable general equilibrium models of small economies," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1-2), pages 47-67, August.
- Rutherford, Thomas F. & Tarr, David G., 2002. "Trade liberalization, product variety and growth in a small open economy: a quantitative assessment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 247-272, March.
- Thomas W. Hertel, 2000. "Potential gains from reducing trade barriers in manufacturing, services and agriculture," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jul, pages 77-104.
- Keith E. Maskus & Mohamed Lahouel, 2000. "Competition Policy and Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(04), pages 595-611, 04.
- Philippa Dee & Kevin Hanslow, 2002. "Multilateral liberalisation of services trade," International Trade 0207002, EconWPA.
- Deardoff, A.V. & Brown, D.K. & Stern, R.M. & Fox, A.K., 1995. "Computational Analysis of Goods and Services Liberalization in the Uruguay Round," Working Papers 379, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3193. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.