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Joint trade liberalization and tax reform in a small open economy: the case of Egypt

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  • Konan, Denise Eby
  • Maskus, Keith E.

Abstract

We develop a computable general equilibrium model of the Egyptian economy. The model is suitable for analyzing the impacts of reforms in the tax system, the trade-policy regime, or both taken together. A two-sector, general-equilibrium model is presented diagrammatically to illustrate the separate and joint effects of distortionary capital taxes, consumption taxes, and tariffs. Thus, trade or tax reform may be undertaken conditionally upon maintenance of the other distortions or may be undertaken in a combined policy package. We compute the welfare gains from various policy changes, along with impacts on the real exchange rate and on real factor prices, allowing tax rates to vary endogenously to satisfy a fixed real revenue target for the Egyptian government. Scenarios include removal or unification of the consumption tax, the capital tax. Or both, and tariff unification, a free-trade agreement with the European Union, and unilateral tariff elimination. Welfare effects depend critically on the reform undertaken and the type of replacement tax. While both are important, neither trade-policy reform nor tax reform dominates. We also calculate interaction effects between policy regimes.
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  • Konan, Denise Eby & Maskus, Keith E., 2000. "Joint trade liberalization and tax reform in a small open economy: the case of Egypt," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 365-392, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:deveco:v:61:y:2000:i:2:p:365-392
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    Cited by:

    1. Hoekman, Bernard & Konan, Denise Eby, 1999. "Deep integration, nondiscrimination, and Euro-Mediterranean free trade," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2130, The World Bank.
    2. Chahir Zaki, 2010. "Towards an Explicit Modeling of Trade Facilitation in CGE Models: Evidence from Egypt," Working Papers 515, Economic Research Forum, revised 04 Jan 2010.
    3. Chen, Been-Lon & Chiang, Yeong-Yuh & Wang, Ping, 2005. "Evaluation of interest tax policies in a model of finance and growth," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 533-552, September.
    4. repec:dau:papers:123456789/5173 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Kavallari, Aikaterini & Schmitz, P. Michael, 2008. "Multilateral trade liberalisation and Preference erosion: Effects on the agricultural sector of the EU's Mediterranean Partner Countries," 2008 International Congress, August 26-29, 2008, Ghent, Belgium 44177, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    6. Denise Eby Konan & Keith E Maskus, 2000. "Bilateral Trade Patterns and Welfare: An Egypt-EU Preferential Trade Agreement," Working Papers 200001, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Economics.
    7. Konan, Denise Eby & Maskus, Keith E., 2006. "Quantifying the impact of services liberalization in a developing country," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 142-162, October.
    8. Jeong-Soo OH & Phouphet Kyophilavong, 2015. "Trade Liberalization and Poverty in Developing Countries: Literature Survey," International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 3(2), pages 86-94, Fabruary.
    9. Kavallari, Aikaterini & Schmitz, P. Michael, 2007. "An Empirical Assessment of Agricultural Trade Policies in the Mediterranean Basin - Regional Effects on the EU Member States," 103rd Seminar, April 23-25, 2007, Barcelona, Spain 9395, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    10. Konan, Denise Eby, 2011. "Limits to growth: Tourism and regional labor migration," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 473-481.
    11. Denise KONAN & Bernard HOEKMAN, "undated". "Deepening Egypt-US Trade Integration: Economic Implications of Alternative Options," Middle East and North Africa 330400039, EcoMod.
    12. Lucke, Bernd & Zotti, Jacopo, 2016. "Macroeconomic effects of the Barcelona Initiative," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 837-854.
    13. Agenor,Pierre-Richard, 2003. "The mini-integrated macroeconomic model for poverty analysis : a framework for analyzing the unemployment and poverty effects of fiscal and labor market reforms," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3067, The World Bank.
    14. Denise Eby Konan & Karl E. Kim, 2004. "Beyond Border Barriers: The Liberalisation of Services Trade in Tunisia and Egypt," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(9), pages 1429-1447, September.
    15. Kim, Sunghyun H. & Kose, M. Ayhan, 2014. "Welfare implications of trade liberalization and fiscal reform: A quantitative experiment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(1), pages 198-209.
    16. Konan, Denise Eby & Van Assche, Ari, 2007. "Regulation, market structure and service trade liberalization," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 895-923, November.
    17. Denise KONAN & Ari Van ASSCHE, "undated". "Regulation, Market Structure and Service Trade Liberalization: A CGE Analysis," Middle East and North Africa 330400038, EcoMod.
    18. Kavallari, Aikaterini & Schmitz, P. M., 2010. "Preference erosion effects on the agricultural sector of the EU’s Mediterranean Partner Countries," Agricultural Economics Review, Greek Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 11(2), June.
    19. Kavallari, Aikaterini & Schmitz, P. Michael, 2010. "Preference erosion effects on the agricultural sector of the EU’s Mediterranean Partner Countries," Agricultural Economics Review, Greek Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 11(2), June.
    20. Bernard Hoekman & Denise Eby Konan, 1998. "Deep Integration, Regionalism and Nondiscrimination," Working Papers 199804, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Economics.
    21. Bittencourt, Maurício Vaz Lobo & Kraybill, David S. & Larson, Donald W., 2006. "Consequences Of Trade Liberalization On Poverty And Income Distribution In Brazil," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21128, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    22. Kavallari, Aikaterini & Borresch, Rene & Schmitz, P. Michael, 2006. "Modelling agricultural policy reforms in the Mediterranean basin - Adjustments of AGRISIM," 98th Seminar, June 29-July 2, 2006, Chania, Crete, Greece 10074, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    23. Timothy Halliday & Hui He & Hao Zhang, 2010. "Health Investment over the Life-Cycle," Working Papers 201020, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Economics.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • H21 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Efficiency; Optimal Taxation

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