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Tentative First Steps: An Assessment of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Services

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  • Hoekman, Bernard

Abstract

The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) is a landmark in terms of creating multilateral disciplines in virgin territory, but is a failure in terms of generating liberalization and locking-in existing policy regimes affecting international transactions in services. There are two key issues that should be addressed in evaluating the GATS. First, what does it do to bind policies? Second, has it established a mechanism that will induce significant liberalization through future rounds of negotiations? This paper concludes that the GATS does not score very high on either dimension. A number of suggestions are made to strengthen the Agreement and support more far-reaching liberalization in the future.

Suggested Citation

  • Hoekman, Bernard, 1995. "Tentative First Steps: An Assessment of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Services," CEPR Discussion Papers 1150, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:1150
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    as
    1. Hoekman, B.M., 1992. "Conceptual and Political Economy Issues in Liberalizing International Transactions in Services," Working Papers 309, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
    2. Hoekman, Bernard & Mavroidis, Petros C, 1995. "The WTO's Agreement on Government Procurement: Expanding Disciplines, Declining Membership?," CEPR Discussion Papers 1112, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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    5. Hindley, Brian, 1988. "Service Sector Protection: Considerations for Developing Countries," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 2(2), pages 205-224, May.
    6. Bernard M. Hoekman & Robert M. Stern, 1991. "Evolving Patterns of Trade and Investment in Services," NBER Chapters, in: International Economic Transactions: Issues in Measurement and Empirical Research, pages 237-290, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Deardoff, A.V. & Brown, D.K. & Stern, R.M. & Fox, A.K., 1995. "Computational Analysis of Goods and Services Liberalization in the Uruguay Round," Working Papers 379, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
    8. Maskus, Keith E & Konan, Denise Eby, 1997. "Trade Liberalization in Egypt," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 1(3), pages 275-293, October.
    9. repec:fth:michin:379 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Gary P. Sampson & Richard H. Snape, 1985. "Identifying the Issues in Trade in Services," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(2), pages 171-182, June.
    11. Bhagwati, Jagdish N, 1987. "Trade in Services and the Multilateral Trade Negotiations," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 1(4), pages 549-569, September.
    12. Jagdish N. Bhagwati, 1984. "Splintering and Disembodiment of Services and Developing Nations," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(2), pages 133-144, June.
    13. William E. Brock, 1982. "A Simple Plan for Negotiating on Trade in Services," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(3), pages 229-240, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Chadha, R. & Brown, D.K. & Deardorff, A.V. & Stern, R.M., 2000. "Computational Analysis of the Impact on India of the Uruguay Round and the Forthcoming WTO Trade Negotiations," Working Papers 459, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
    2. Stephenson, Sherry M., 1999. "Approaches to liberalizing services," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2107, The World Bank.
    3. Hayakawa, Kazunobu & Mukunoki, Hiroshi & Yang, Chih-hai, 2020. "Liberalization for services FDI and export quality: Evidence from China," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 55(C).
    4. Henk Kox & Arjan Lejour, 2005. "Regulatory heterogeneity as obstacle for international services trade," CPB Discussion Paper 49, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    5. Konan, Denise Eby & Maskus, Keith E., 2006. "Quantifying the impact of services liberalization in a developing country," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 142-162, October.
    6. Philipp Harms & Aaditya Mattoo & Ludger Schuknecht, 2003. "Explaining liberalization commitments in financial services trade," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 139(1), pages 82-113, March.
    7. Zafar Mahmood, 1998. "WTO and Pakistan: Opportunities and Policy Challenges," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 37(4), pages 687-701.
    8. John Roberts, 2000. "Issues in the liberalization of trade in services," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(2), pages 257-264.
    9. Bernard Hoekman, 1998. "The World Trade Organization, the European Union, and the Arab World: Trade Policy Priorities and Pitfalls," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: Nemat Shafik (ed.), Prospects for Middle Eastern and North African Economies, chapter 4, pages 96-129, Palgrave Macmillan.
    10. Jiyong Chen & Dabo Chen & Aiping Yao, 2020. "Trade development between China and countries along the Belt and Road: A spatial econometric analysis based on trade competitiveness and complementarity," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(2), pages 205-227, May.
    11. Iris Claus & Les Oxley & Hejing Chen & John Whalley, 2014. "China'S Service Trade," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(4), pages 746-774, September.
    12. Nico van Leeuwen & Arjan Lejour, 2006. "Bilateral Services Trade Data and the GTAP database," CPB Memorandum 160, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    13. Sampriti Das & Amiya Sarma, 2021. "Growth Behaviour of India’s Export of Services, 1975–2018," Foreign Trade Review, , vol. 56(3), pages 301-321, August.
    14. Keith Walsh, 2006. "Trade in Services: Does Gravity Hold? A Gravity Model Approach to Estimating Barriers to Services Trade," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp183, IIIS.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    GATS; Multilateral Trade Negotiations; Trade in Services; Trade Policy;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations

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