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Youth employment : a human development agenda for the next decade

  • Robalino, David
  • Margolis, David
  • Rother, Friederike
  • Newhouse, David
  • Lundberg, Mattias

This paper reviews the main challenges facing countries in attempting to improve labor market outcomes among youth, focusing on the issues that became starkly visible during the recent financial crisis. In order to better identify and set uphuman development interventions, the paper proposes an agenda that focuses on three areas: (1) improving the understanding of the causes and consequences of poor labor market outcomes for youth; (2) continuing to learn from the evaluation of pilots and programs that aim to promote productive employment among young people; and (3) addressing implementation issues which frequently overwhelm the best designs. The paper utilizes research on youth employment to take stock of youth labor market outcomes across regions, focusing on inactivity, unemployment, and employment indicators. A review of what is known about current interventions, including those that appear in the youth employment Inventory database of programs, provides the basis for determining the efficacy of five categories of intervention: (i) skills training (including vocational training, on-the-job-training programs, literacy and numeracy programs, second-chance and equivalency programs, and soft-skills programs); (ii) entrepreneurship promotion (financial assistance, technical assistance, and entrepreneurship training); (iii) subsidized employment (including wage subsidy programs, public works, and public/community service programs); (iv) employment services (including search assistance and access to labor market information, job counseling and placement services, and financial assistance for job search); and (v) reforms to labor market regulation (including anti-discrimination legislation) training programs, wage subsidies. Finally, the paper proposes an agenda for research and policy analysis in the area of human development that is expected to help both deepen the understanding of youth employment issues and improve the selection, design, and implementation of youth employment programs.

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Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes with number 83925.

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Date of creation: 01 Jun 2013
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:hdnspu:83925
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  1. Kuriakose, Anne T. & Heltberg, Rasmus & Heltberg, Rasmus & Wiseman, William & Costella, Cecilia & Cipryk, Rachel & Cornelius, Sabine, 2012. "Climate responsive social protection," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 67614, The World Bank.
  2. Andrews, Colin & Backiny-Yetna, Prospere & Garin, Emily & Weedon, Emily & Wodon, Quentin & Zampaglione, Giuseppe, 2011. "Liberia's Cash for Work Temporary Employment Project : responding to crisis in low income, fragile countries," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 63401, The World Bank.
  3. Almeida, Rita & Arbelaez, Juliana & Honorati, Maddalena & Kuddo, Arvo & Lohmann, Tanja & Ovadiya, Mirey & Pop, Lucian & Puerta, Maria Laura Sanchez & Weber, Michael, 2012. "Improving access to jobs and earnings opportunities : the role of activation and graduation policies in developing countries," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 67610, The World Bank.
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  7. del Ninno, Carlo & Subbarao, Kalanidhi & Kjellgren, Annika & Quintana, Rodrigo, 2013. "Improving payment mechanisms in cash-based safety net programs," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 84081, The World Bank.
  8. Cho, Yoonyoung & Honorati, Maddalena, 2013. "Entrepreneurship programs in developing countries : a meta regression analysis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6402, The World Bank.
  9. Christopher Blattman & Nathan Fiala & Sebastian Martinez, 2012. "Employment Generation in Rural Africa: Mid-Term Results from an Experimental Evaluation of the Youth Opportunities Program in Northern Uganda," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1201, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  10. Holzmann, Robert & Koettl, Johannes, 2011. "Portability of Pension, Health, and Other Social Benefits: Facts, Concepts, Issues," IZA Discussion Papers 5715, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Rofman, Rafael & Oliveri, Maria Laura, 2012. "Pension coverage in Latin America : trends and determinants," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 70926, The World Bank.
  12. Andrews, Colin & Ovadiya, Mirey & Ribes Ros, Christophe & Wodon, Quentin, 2012. "Cash for work in Sierra Leone : a case study on the design and implementation of a safety net in response to a crisis," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 73719, The World Bank.
  13. Werding, Martin & McLennan, Stuart, 2011. "International portability of health-cost coverage : concepts and experience," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 63929, The World Bank.
  14. Mitra, Sophie & Posarac, Aleksandra & Vick, Brandon, 2011. "Disability and poverty in developing countries : a snapshot from the world health survey," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 62564, The World Bank.
  15. Robalino, David A. & Rawlings, Laura & Walker, Ian, 2012. "Building social protection and labor systems : concepts and operational implications," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 67608, The World Bank.
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