Improving access to jobs and earnings opportunities : the role of activation and graduation policies in developing countries
Throughout the developing world there is a growing demand for advice on the design of policies to facilitate access of the most vulnerable individuals to jobs, while reducing their dependency from public income support schemes. Even though these policies are common to both the activation and graduation agendas, a separation is needed as the graduation of beneficiaries out of poverty is a much more ambitious agenda. This paper proposes a simple policy framework highlighting the most common barriers for productive employment. It also reviews the topic of incentive compatibility of income support schemes and employment support programs that are used to address them. The paper finds that, especially in middle income countries, activation and active labor market programs play an important role connecting individuals to jobs and improving earnings opportunities. In low income countries, these programs are far from being a panacea to graduate beneficiaries out of poverty. Furthermore, only scant evidence is available on the pathways to graduation and significant knowledge gaps remain. More cross-disciplinary research is needed to strengthen the evidence base and develop recommendations for different contexts and capacity levels.
|Date of creation:||01 Mar 2012|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433|
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/spl
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Vodopivec, Milan & Worgotter, Andreas & Raju, Dhushyanth, 2003. "Unemployment benefit systems in Central and Eastern Europe : a review of the 1990s," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 26307, The World Bank.
- Wendy Cunningham & Maria Laura Sanchez-Puerta & Alice Wuermli, 2010. "Active Labor Market Programs for Youth : A Framework to Guide Youth Employment Interventions," World Bank Other Operational Studies 11690, The World Bank.
- James J. Heckman & Paul A. LaFontaine, 2006.
"Bias-Corrected Estimates of GED Returns,"
Journal of Labor Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 24(3), pages 661-700, July.
- Svarer, Michael, 2007.
"The Effect of Sanctions on the Job Finding Rate: Evidence from Denmark,"
IZA Discussion Papers
3015, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Michael Svarer, 2007. "The Effect of Sanctions on the Job Finding Rate: Evidence from Denmark," Economics Working Papers 2007-10, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
- Angel-Urdinola, Diego F. & Semlali, Amina & Brodmann, Stefanie, 2010. "Non-public provision of active labor market programs in Arab- Mediterranean countries : an inventory of youth programs," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 55673, The World Bank.
- Robalino, David A. & Zylberstajn, Eduardo & Zylberstajn, Helio & Afonso, Luis Eduardo, 2009.
"Ex-ante methods to assess the impact of social insurance policies on labor supply with an application to Brazil,"
Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes
52448, The World Bank.
- Robalino, David A. & Zylberstajn, Helio, 2009. "Ex-ante methods to assess the impact of social insurance policies on labor supply with an application to Brazil," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5027, The World Bank.
- Richard Blundell & Monica Costa Dias & Costas Meghir & John Van Reenen, 2004.
"Evaluating the Employment Impact of a Mandatory Job Search Program,"
Journal of the European Economic Association,
MIT Press, vol. 2(4), pages 569-606, 06.
- Blundell, Richard William & Costa Dias, Monica & Meghir, Costas & Van Reenen, John, 2003. "Evaluating the Employment Impact of a Mandatory Job Search Programme," CEPR Discussion Papers 3786, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Catalin Pauna & John S. Earle, 1998. "Long-term unemployment, social assistance and labor market policies in Romania," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 23(1/2), pages 203-235.
- Abdulai, Awudu & Barrett, Christopher B. & Hoddinott, John, 2005. "Does food aid Really have disincentive effects? New evidence from sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1689-1704, October.
- Galasso, Emanuela & Ravallion, Martin & Salvia, Agustin, 2001.
"Assisting the transition from workfare to work : a randomized experiment,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2738, The World Bank.
- Emanuela Galasso & Martin Ravallion & Agustin Salvia, 2004. "Assisting the Transition from Workfare to Work: A Randomized Experiment," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 58(1), pages 128-142, October.
- Hessel Oosterbeek & Mirjam van Praag & Auke IJsselstein, 2008. "The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurship Competencies and Intentions," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 08-038/3, Tinbergen Institute.
- David Robalino & Arup Banerji, 2009. "Addressing the Employment Effects of the Financial Crisis : The Role of Wage Subsidies and Reduced Work Schedules," World Bank Other Operational Studies 11717, The World Bank.
- Rodríguez-Planas, Núria & Benus, Jacob, 2006.
"Evaluating Active Labor Market Programs in Romania,"
IZA Discussion Papers
2464, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Núria Rodríguez-Planas & Benus Jacob, 2010. "Evaluating active labor market programs in Romania," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 38(1), pages 65-84, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:hdnspu:67610. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Raiden C. Dillard)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.