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Improving access to jobs and earnings opportunities : the role of activation and graduation policies in developing countries

  • Almeida, Rita
  • Arbelaez, Juliana
  • Honorati, Maddalena
  • Kuddo, Arvo
  • Lohmann, Tanja
  • Ovadiya, Mirey
  • Pop, Lucian
  • Puerta, Maria Laura Sanchez
  • Weber, Michael

Throughout the developing world there is a growing demand for advice on the design of policies to facilitate access of the most vulnerable individuals to jobs, while reducing their dependency from public income support schemes. Even though these policies are common to both the activation and graduation agendas, a separation is needed as the graduation of beneficiaries out of poverty is a much more ambitious agenda. This paper proposes a simple policy framework highlighting the most common barriers for productive employment. It also reviews the topic of incentive compatibility of income support schemes and employment support programs that are used to address them. The paper finds that, especially in middle income countries, activation and active labor market programs play an important role connecting individuals to jobs and improving earnings opportunities. In low income countries, these programs are far from being a panacea to graduate beneficiaries out of poverty. Furthermore, only scant evidence is available on the pathways to graduation and significant knowledge gaps remain. More cross-disciplinary research is needed to strengthen the evidence base and develop recommendations for different contexts and capacity levels.

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Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Social Protection Discussion Papers with number 67610.

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Date of creation: 01 Mar 2012
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:hdnspu:67610
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  1. Blundell, Richard William & Costa Dias, Monica & Meghir, Costas & Van Reenen, John, 2003. "Evaluating the Employment Impact of a Mandatory Job Search Programme," CEPR Discussion Papers 3786, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  8. Robalino, David A. & Zylberstajn, Eduardo & Zylberstajn, Helio & Afonso, Luis Eduardo, 2009. "Ex-ante methods to assess the impact of social insurance policies on labor supply with an application to Brazil," Social Protection Discussion Papers 52448, The World Bank.
  9. Emanuela Galasso & Martin Ravallion & Agustin Salvia, 2004. "Assisting the transition from workfare to work: A randomized experiment," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 58(1), pages 128-142, October.
  10. Vodopivec, Milan & Worgotter, Andreas & Raju, Dhushyanth, 2003. "Unemployment benefit systems in Central and Eastern Europe : a review of the 1990s," Social Protection Discussion Papers 26307, The World Bank.
  11. Hessel Oosterbeek & Mirjam van Praag & Auke IJsselstein, 2008. "The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurship Competencies and Intentions," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 08-038/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  12. Wendy Cunningham & Maria Laura Sanchez-Puerta & Alice Wuermli, 2010. "Active Labor Market Programs for Youth : A Framework to Guide Youth Employment Interventions," World Bank Other Operational Studies 11690, The World Bank.
  13. Angel-Urdinola, Diego F. & Semlali, Amina & Brodmann, Stefanie, 2010. "Non-public provision of active labor market programs in Arab- Mediterranean countries : an inventory of youth programs," Social Protection Discussion Papers 55673, The World Bank.
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