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Improving access to jobs and earnings opportunities : the role of activation and graduation policies in developing countries

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  • Almeida, Rita
  • Arbelaez, Juliana
  • Honorati, Maddalena
  • Kuddo, Arvo
  • Lohmann, Tanja
  • Ovadiya, Mirey
  • Pop, Lucian
  • Puerta, Maria Laura Sanchez
  • Weber, Michael

Abstract

Throughout the developing world there is a growing demand for advice on the design of policies to facilitate access of the most vulnerable individuals to jobs, while reducing their dependency from public income support schemes. Even though these policies are common to both the activation and graduation agendas, a separation is needed as the graduation of beneficiaries out of poverty is a much more ambitious agenda. This paper proposes a simple policy framework highlighting the most common barriers for productive employment. It also reviews the topic of incentive compatibility of income support schemes and employment support programs that are used to address them. The paper finds that, especially in middle income countries, activation and active labor market programs play an important role connecting individuals to jobs and improving earnings opportunities. In low income countries, these programs are far from being a panacea to graduate beneficiaries out of poverty. Furthermore, only scant evidence is available on the pathways to graduation and significant knowledge gaps remain. More cross-disciplinary research is needed to strengthen the evidence base and develop recommendations for different contexts and capacity levels.

Suggested Citation

  • Almeida, Rita & Arbelaez, Juliana & Honorati, Maddalena & Kuddo, Arvo & Lohmann, Tanja & Ovadiya, Mirey & Pop, Lucian & Puerta, Maria Laura Sanchez & Weber, Michael, 2012. "Improving access to jobs and earnings opportunities : the role of activation and graduation policies in developing countries," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 67610, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:hdnspu:67610
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Honorati, Maddalena & McArdle, Thomas P, 2013. "The nuts and bolts of designing and implementing training programs in developing countries," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 78980, The World Bank.
    2. International Labour Office., 2015. "Global employment trends for youth 2015 : scaling up investments in decent jobs for youth," Global Employment Trends Reports 994891803402676, International Labour Office, Economic and Labour Market Analysis Department.
    3. Umapathi, Nithin & Wang, Dewen & O'Keefe, Philip, 2013. "Eligibility thresholds for minimum living guarantee programs : international practices and implications for China," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 83118, The World Bank.
    4. David Robalino & Michael Weber, 2013. "Designing and implementing unemployment benefit systems in middle and low income countries: beyond risk-pooling vs savings," IZA Journal of Labor Policy, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 2(1), pages 1-20, December.
    5. Mirey Ovadiya & Frieda Vandeninden, 2017. "Portraits of Labor Market Exclusion 2.0," World Bank Other Operational Studies 29629, The World Bank.
    6. Domelen, Julie van, 2012. "Togo : towards a national social protection policy and strategy," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 89000, The World Bank.
    7. World Bank, 2012. "Resilience, Equity, and Opportunity
      [Capacidad de recuperación, equidad y oportunidades]
      ," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12648, The World Bank.
    8. Milan Vodopivec, 2013. "Introducing unemployment insurance to developing countries," IZA Journal of Labor Policy, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 2(1), pages 1-23, December.
    9. Premand, Patrick & Brodmann, Stefanie & Almeida, Rita & Grun, Rebekka & Barouni, Mahdi, 2016. "Entrepreneurship Education and Entry into Self-Employment Among University Graduates," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 311-327.
    10. Honorati,Maddalena, 2015. "The impact of private sector internship and training on urban youth in Kenya," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7404, The World Bank.
    11. Robalino, David A. & Weber, Michael, 2013. "Designing and implementing unemployment benefit systems in middle and low income countries : key choices between insurance and savings accounts," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 90348, The World Bank.
    12. Cerutti, Paula & Fruttero, Anna & Grosh, Margaret & Kostenbaum, Silvana & Oliveri, Maria Laura & Rodriguez-Alas, Claudia & Strokova, Victoria, 2014. "Social assistance and labor market programs in Latin America : methodology and key findings from the social protection database," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 88769, The World Bank.
    13. Robalino, David & Margolis, David & Rother, Friederike & Newhouse, David & Lundberg, Mattias, 2013. "Youth employment : a human development agenda for the next decade," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 83925, The World Bank.
    14. Rita Almeida & Larry Orr & David Robalino, 2014. "Wage subsidies in developing countries as a tool to build human capital: design and implementation issues," IZA Journal of Labor Policy, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 3(1), pages 1-24, December.
    15. Dorfman, Mark & Palacios, Robert, 2012. "World Bank support for pensions and social security," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 70925, The World Bank.

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    Keywords

    Labor Markets; Safety Nets and Transfers; Labor Policies; Rural Poverty Reduction; Poverty Impact Evaluation;

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