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Pension plans and retirement incentives

  • Disney, Richard
  • Whitehouse, Edward

This paper aims to examine the impact of type of pension scheme on retirement behavior. Section 1 describes a simple, theoretical model of optimal retirement. Section 2 introduces an empirical model of a simple retirement savings plan, or defined contribution pension scheme. Section 3 compares this with a defined benefit scheme. Sections4 and 5 examine the effect of these pension plans on work incentives. The following three sections extend the basic model to introduce'real world'features of pension plans. Section 9 examines the policy implications of the results and sets out anagenda for future research in this area. The results show a powerful incentive to leave work at the earliest possible age in defined benefit plans. Defined contribution plans, in contrast, encourage people to remain in work longer.

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Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Social Protection Discussion Papers with number 20851.

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Date of creation: 31 Aug 1999
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:hdnspu:20851
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  1. Richard Disney, 1995. "Occupational pension schemes: prospects and reforms in the UK," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 16(3), pages 19-39, September.
  2. Alan L. Gustman & Thomas L. Steinmeier, 1989. "The Stampede Toward Defined Contribution Pension Plans: Fact or Fiction?," NBER Working Papers 3086, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Costas Meghir & Edward Whitehouse, 1993. "Labour market transitions and retirement of men in the UK," IFS Working Papers W93/12, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  4. Gosling, Amanda & Machin, Stephen & Meghir, Costas, 2000. "The Changing Distribution of Male Wages in the U.K," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 67(4), pages 635-66, October.
  5. Burtless, Gary, 1986. "Social Security, Unanticipated Benefit Increases, and the Timing of Retirement," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(5), pages 781-805, October.
  6. Louis S. Jacobson & Robert J. LaLonde & Daniel Sullivan, 1992. "Earnings Losses of Displaced Workers," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles 92-11, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
  7. Marek Gora & Michael Rutkowski, 2000. "The Quest for Pension Reform: Poland's Security though Diversity," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 286, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  8. Christopher J. Ruhm, 1994. "Do Pensions Increase the Labor Supply of Older Men?," NBER Working Papers 4925, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Friedberg, Leora, 1999. "The effect of old age assistance on retirement," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 213-232, February.
  10. Cécile Brousse & Didier Blanchet & Mahrez Okba, 1996. "Retraite, préretraite, neutralité actuarielle et couverture du risque de chômage en fin de carrière," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 291(1), pages 203-218.
  11. Zvi Bodie & John B. Shoven & David A. Wise, 1988. "Pensions in the U.S. Economy," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number bodi88-1, October.
  12. Robin L. Lumsdaine & James H. Stock & David A. Wise, 1990. "Three Models of Retirement: Computational Complexity Versus Predictive Validity," NBER Working Papers 3558, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Leora Friedberg, 1998. "The Social Security Earnings Test and Labor Supply of Older Men," NBER Chapters, in: Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 12, pages 121-150 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Richard B. Freeman, 1979. "The Effect of Demographic Factors on Age-Earnings Profiles," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 14(3), pages 289-318.
  15. Robert Hutchens, 1988. "Do job opportunities decline with age?," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 42(1), pages 89-99, October.
  16. Edward Whitehouse, 1990. "The abolition of the pensions 'earnings rule'," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 11(3), pages 55-70, August.
  17. C. N. Morris, 1981. "The age allowance," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 2(3), pages 29-36, November.
  18. Gerhard Naegele, 1996. "New Trends in Gradual Retirement in Germany*," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 21(4), pages 524-533, October.
  19. James H. Stock & David A. Wise, 1990. "The Pension Inducement to Retire: An Option Value Analysis," NBER Chapters, in: Issues in the Economics of Aging, pages 205-230 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Gustman, Alan L & Steinmeier, Thomas L, 1986. "A Structural Retirement Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(3), pages 555-84, May.
  21. Sewin Chan & Ann Huff Stevens, 1999. "Job Loss and Retirement Behavior of Older Men," NBER Working Papers 6920, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  22. Laurence J. Kotlikoff & David A. Wise, 1987. "The Incentive Effects of Private Pension Plans," NBER Chapters, in: Issues in Pension Economics, pages 283-340 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  23. Christopher J. Ruhm, 1995. "Secular Changes in the Work and Retirement Patterns of Older Men," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30(2), pages 362-385.
  24. Marten Palme & Ingemar Svensson, 1997. "Social Security, Occupational Pensions, and Retirement in Sweden," NBER Working Papers 6137, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  25. Alan L. Gustman & Thomas L. Steinmeier, 1984. "Partial retirement and the analysis of retirement behavior," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 37(3), pages 403-415, April.
  26. Whitehouse, Edward, 1999. "The tax treatment of funded pensions," Social Protection Discussion Papers 20126, The World Bank.
  27. Joseph F. Quinn & Richard V. Burkhauser & Daniel A. Myers, 1990. "Passing the Torch: The Influence of Economic Incentives on Work and Retirement," Books from Upjohn Press, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, number pt, December.
  28. Robin L. Lumsdaine & James H. Stock & David A. Wise, 1994. "Pension Plan Provisions and Retirement: Men and Women, Medicare, and Models," NBER Chapters, in: Studies in the Economics of Aging, pages 183-222 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  29. Ruhm, Christopher J, 1990. "Bridge Jobs and Partial Retirement," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(4), pages 482-501, October.
  30. Brugiavini, Agar, 1993. "Uncertainty resolution and the timing of annuity purchases," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 31-62, January.
  31. Michael J. Boskin & Michael D. Hurd, 1977. "The Effect of Social Security on Early Retirement," NBER Working Papers 0204, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  32. Anderson, Patricia M & Gustman, Alan L & Steinmeier, Thomas L, 1999. "Trends in Male Labor Force Participation and Retirement: Some Evidence on the Role of Pensions and Social Security in the 1970s and 1980s," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(4), pages 757-83, October.
  33. Palacios, Robert & Rocha, Roberto, 1998. "The Hungarian pension system in transition," Social Protection Discussion Papers 20048, The World Bank.
  34. Dilnot, Andrew & Disney, Richard & Johnson, Paul & Whitehouse, Edward, 1994. "Pensions policy in the UK: An economic analysis," MPRA Paper 10478, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  35. Lazear, Edward P, 1979. "Why Is There Mandatory Retirement?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(6), pages 1261-84, December.
  36. Richard W. Johnson & David Neumark, 1996. "Age Discrimination, Job Separation, and Employment Status of Older Workers: Evidence from Self-Reports," NBER Working Papers 5619, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  37. Sheetal K. Chand & Albert Jaeger, 1996. "Aging Populations and Public Pension Schemes," IMF Occasional Papers 147, International Monetary Fund.
  38. Richard Disney & Costas Meghir & Edward Whitehouse, 1994. "Retirement behaviour in Britain," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 15(1), pages 24-43, February.
  39. Richard Disney, 1996. "Can We Afford to Grow Older?," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 026204157x, June.
  40. Richard V. Burkhauser, 1980. "The early acceptance of social security: An asset maximization approach," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 33(4), pages 484-492, July.
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