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Market Games and Clubs

  • Myrna Wooders

    ()

    (Department of Economics, Vanderbilt University)

The equivalence of markets and games concerns the relationship between two sorts of structures that appear fundamentally different -- markets and games. Shapley and Shubik (1969) demonstrates that: (1) games derived from markets with concave utility functions generate totally balanced games where the players in the game are the participants in the economy and (2) every totally balanced game generates a market with concave utility functions. A particular form of such a market is one where the commodities are the participants themselves, a labor market for example. But markets are very special structures, more so when it is required that utility functions be concave. Participants may also get utility from belonging to groups, such as marriages, or clubs, or productive coalitions. It may be that participants in an economy even derive utility (or disutility) from engaging in processes that lead to the eventual exchange of commodities. The question is when are such economic structures equivalent to markets with concave utility functions? This paper summarizes research showing that a broad class of large economies generate balanced market games. The economies include, for example, economies with clubs where individuals may have memberships in multiple clubs, with indivisible commodities, with nonconvexities and with non-monotonicities. The main assumption are: (1) that an option open to any group of players is to break into smaller groups and realize the sum of the worths of these groups, that is, essential superadditivity is satisfied and :(2) relatively small groups of participants can realize almost all gains to coalition formation. The equivalence of games with many players and markets with many participants indicates that relationships obtained for markets with concave utility functions and many participants will also hold for diverse social and economic situations with many players. These relationships include: (a) equivalence of the core and the set of competitive outcomes; (b) the Shapley value is contained in the core or approximate cores; (c) the equal treatment property holds -- that is, both market equilibrium and the core treat similar players similarly. These results can be applied to diverse economic models to obtain the equivalence of cooperative outcomes and competitive, price taking outcomes in economies with many participants and indicate that such results hold in yet more generality.

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Paper provided by Vanderbilt University Department of Economics in its series Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers with number 0919.

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Date of creation: Oct 2009
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Handle: RePEc:van:wpaper:0919
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.vanderbilt.edu/econ/wparchive/index.html

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  1. Myrna Wooders, 2010. "Cores of many-player games; nonemptiness and equal treatment," Review of Economic Design, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 131-162, March.
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  6. Moulin, Herve, 2001. "Axiomatic Cost and Surplis-Sharing," Working Papers 2001-06, Rice University, Department of Economics.
  7. Kovalenkov, Alexander & Wooders, Myrna, 2004. "Comparative Statics And Laws Of Scarcity For Games," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 715, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  8. Tauman, Yair & Urbano, Amparo & Watanabe, Junichi, 1997. "A Model of Multiproduct Price Competition," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 377-401, December.
  9. Page Jr., Frank H. & Wooders, Myrna, 2010. "Club networks with multiple memberships and noncooperative stability," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 12-20, September.
  10. Kovalenkov, Alexander & Wooders, Myrna Holtz, 2001. "Epsilon Cores of Games with Limited Side Payments: Nonemptiness and Equal Treatment," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 193-218, August.
  11. Wooders, Myrna Holtz, 1992. "Inessentiality of Large Groups and the Approximate Core Property: An Equivalence Theorem," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 2(1), pages 129-47, January.
  12. Mas-Colell, Andreu, 1975. "A further result on the representation of games by markets," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 117-122, February.
  13. Eyal Winter & Myrna Wooders, 2008. "On large games with bounded essential coalition sizes," International Journal of Economic Theory, The International Society for Economic Theory, vol. 4(2), pages 191-206.
  14. Alexander Kovalenkov & Myrna H. Wooders, 1999. "A law of scarcity for games," Working Papers mwooders-00-05, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
  15. Martin Shubik & Myrna Holtz Wooders, 1982. "Near-Markets and Market Games," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 657, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
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  18. Myrna Wooders, 2009. "Market Games and Clubs," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0919, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  19. Alexander Kovalenkov & Myrna Holtz Wooders, 2000. "Approximate Cores of Games and Economies with Clubs," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 1790, Econometric Society.
  20. Ellickson, Bryan & Grodal, Birgit & Scotchmer, Suzanne & Zane, William R., 1997. "clubs and the Market: Large Finite Economies," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt10k1b44j, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  21. Allouch, Nizar & Wooders, Myrna, 2008. "Price taking equilibrium in economies with multiple memberships in clubs and unbounded club sizes," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 140(1), pages 246-278, May.
  22. Konishi, Hideo & Le Breton, Michel & Weber, Shlomo, 1998. "Equilibrium in a Finite Local Public Goods Economy," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 79(2), pages 224-244, April.
  23. Wooders,Myrna, . "On large ghames and competitive marketsI: Theory," Discussion Paper Serie B 195, University of Bonn, Germany.
  24. Wooders, Myrna Holtz, 1994. "Equivalence of Games and Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(5), pages 1141-60, September.
  25. Myrna Holtz Wooders, 1992. "Large Games and Economies With Effective Small Groups," Discussion Paper Serie B 215, University of Bonn, Germany, revised Aug 1992.
  26. Qin, Cheng-Zhong & Shapley, Lloyd S & Shimomura, Ken-Ichi, 2004. "The Walras Core of an Economy and Its Limit Theorem," University of California at Santa Barbara, Economics Working Paper Series qt6hp534w3, Department of Economics, UC Santa Barbara.
  27. Kaneko, Mamoru & Wooders, Myrna Holtz, 1986. "The core of a game with a continuum of players and finite coalitions: The model and some results," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 105-137, October.
  28. Billera, Louis J., 1974. "On games without side payments arising from a general class of markets," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 129-139, August.
  29. Kannai, Yakar, 1972. "Continuity Properties of the Core of a Market: A Correction," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 40(5), pages 955-58, September.
  30. Bryan Ellickson & Birgit Grodal & Suzanne Scotchmer & William R. Zame, 1999. "Clubs and the Market," Discussion Papers 99-04, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
    • Bryan Ellickson & Birgit Grodal & Suzanne Scotchmer & William R. Zame, 1999. "Clubs and the Market," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(5), pages 1185-1218, September.
  31. Kelso, Alexander S, Jr & Crawford, Vincent P, 1982. "Job Matching, Coalition Formation, and Gross Substitutes," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(6), pages 1483-1504, November.
  32. Bennett, Elaine & Wooders, Myrna, 1979. "Income distribution and firm formation," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 304-317, September.
  33. Page Jr., Frank H. & Wooders, Myrna, 2007. "Networks and clubs," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 64(3-4), pages 406-425.
  34. Cheng, Hsueh-Cheng, 1981. "On dual regularity and value convergence theorems," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 37-57, March.
  35. Nizar Allouch & John P. Conley & Myrna Wooders, 2008. "Anonymous Price Taking Equilibrium in Tiebout Economies with a Continuum of Agents: Existence and Characterization," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0811, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  36. Wooders, Myrna Holtz & Zame, William R., 1987. "Large games: Fair and stable outcomes," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 59-93, June.
  37. Mamoru Kaneko & Myrna Holtz Wooders, 1982. "Cores of Partitioning Games," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 620, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  38. Sondermann, Dieter, 1974. "Economies of scale and equilibria in coalition production economies," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 259-291, July.
  39. Shapley, Lloyd S. & Shubik, Martin, 1969. "On market games," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 9-25, June.
  40. Shubik, Martin & Wooders, Myrna Holtz, 1983. "Approximate cores of replica games and economies. Part I: Replica games, externalities, and approximate cores," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 27-48, October.
  41. WOODERS, Myrna, 1988. "Large games are market games. 1. Large finite games," CORE Discussion Papers 1988042, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  42. Wooders, Myrna Holtz, 1989. "A Tiebout theorem," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 33-55, August.
  43. Mas-Colell, Andreu, 1980. "Efficiency and Decentralization in the Pure Theory of Public Goods," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 94(4), pages 625-41, June.
  44. John P. Conley & Myrna Holtz Wooders, 1998. "Taste-homogeneity of Optimal Jurisdictions in a Tiebout Economy with Crowding Types," Working Papers mwooders-98-01, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
  45. Sun,N. & Trockel,W. & Yang,Z., 2004. "Competitive outcomes and endogenous coalition formation in an n-person game," Working Papers 358, Bielefeld University, Center for Mathematical Economics.
  46. Wooders, Myrna, 1978. "Equilibria, the core, and jurisdiction structures in economies with a local public good," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 328-348, August.
  47. Scotchmer, S. & Wooders, M.H., 1988. "Monotonicity in games that Exhaust Gains to Scale," Papers 525, Stanford - Institute for Thoretical Economics.
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  49. Cartwright, Edward & Conley, John & Wooders, Myrna, 2005. "The Law of Demand in Tiebout Economies," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 734, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  50. Bergstrom, Theodore C. & Varian, Hal R., 1985. "When do market games have transferable utility?," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 222-233, August.
  51. Shubik, Martin & Wooders, Myrna Holtz, 1983. "Approximate cores of replica games and economies : Part II: Set-up costs and firm formation in coalition production economies," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 285-306, December.
  52. Ehud Kalai & Eitan Zemel, 1980. "Generalized Network Problems Yielding Totally Balanced Games," Discussion Papers 425, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
  53. Mas-Colell, Andreu, 1977. "Indivisible commodities and general equilibrium theory," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 443-456, December.
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  56. Wooders, Myrna, 2008. "Small group effectiveness, per capita boundedness and nonemptiness of approximate cores," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(7-8), pages 888-906, July.
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