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Market games and clubs

  • Wooders, Myrna

The equivalence of markets and games concerns the relationship between two sorts of structures that appear fundamentally different -- markets and games. Shapley and Shubik (1969) demonstrates that: (1) games derived from markets with concave utility functions generate totally balanced games where the players in the game are the participants in the economy and (2) every totally balanced game generates a market with concave utility functions. A particular form of such a market is one where the commodities are the participants themselves, a labor market for example. But markets are very special structures, more so when it is required that utility functions be concave. Participants may also get utility from belonging to groups, such as marriages, or clubs, or productive coalitions. It may be that participants in an economy even derive utility (or disutility) from engaging in processes that lead to the eventual exchange of commodities. The question is when are such economic structures equivalent to markets with concave utility functions. This paper summarizes research showing that a broad class of large economies generate balanced market games. The economies include, for example, economies with clubs where individuals may have memberships in multiple clubs, with indivisibile commodities, with nonconvexities and with non-monotonicities. The main assumption are: (1) that an option open to any group of players is to break into smaller groups and realize the sum of the worths of these groups, that is, essential superadditivity is satisfied and :(2) relatively small groups of participants can realize almost all gains to coalition formation. The equivalence of games with many players and markets with many participants indicates that relationships obtained for markets with concave utility functions and many participants will also hold for diverse social and economic situations with many players. These relationships include: (a) equivalence of the core and the set of competitive outcomes; (b) the Shapley value is contained in the core or approximate cores; (c) the equal treatment property holds -- that is, both market equilibrium and the core treat similar players similarly. These results can be applied to diverse economic models to obtain the equivalence of cooperative outcomes and competitive, price taking outcomes in economies with many participants and indicate that such results hold in yet more generality.

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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 33968.

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Date of creation: 2008
Date of revision: Dec 2010
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:33968
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  10. Mas-Colell, Andreu, 1977. "Indivisible commodities and general equilibrium theory," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 443-456, December.
  11. Bennett, Elaine & Wooders, Myrna, 1979. "Income distribution and firm formation," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 304-317, September.
  12. Mas-Colell, Andreu, 1980. "Efficiency and Decentralization in the Pure Theory of Public Goods," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 94(4), pages 625-41, June.
  13. Myrna Wooders, 2009. "Cores of Many-Player Games; Nonemptiness and Equal Treatment," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0918, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  14. Tauman, Yair & Urbano, Amparo & Watanabe, Junichi, 1997. "A Model of Multiproduct Price Competition," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 377-401, December.
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  16. Bergstrom, Theodore C. & Varian, Hal R., 1985. "When do market games have transferable utility?," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 222-233, August.
  17. Eyal Winter & Myrna Wooders, 2008. "On large games with bounded essential coalition sizes," International Journal of Economic Theory, The International Society for Economic Theory, vol. 4(2), pages 191-206.
  18. Wooders, Myrna Holtz, 1983. "The epsilon core of a large replica game," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 277-300, July.
  19. Qin, Cheng-Zhong & Shapley, Lloyd S & Shimomura, Ken-Ichi, 2004. "The Walras Core of an Economy and Its Limit Theorem," University of California at Santa Barbara, Economics Working Paper Series qt6hp534w3, Department of Economics, UC Santa Barbara.
  20. Frank H. Page, Jr. & Myrna H. Wooders, 2009. "Club Networks with Multiple Memberships and Noncooperative Stability," Caepr Working Papers 2009-005, Center for Applied Economics and Policy Research, Economics Department, Indiana University Bloomington.
  21. Kaneko, Mamoru & Wooders, Myrna Holtz, 1986. "The core of a game with a continuum of players and finite coalitions: The model and some results," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 105-137, October.
  22. Allouch, Nizar & Conley, John P. & Wooders, Myrna, 2009. "Anonymous price taking equilibrium in Tiebout economies with a continuum of agents: Existence and characterization," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(9-10), pages 492-510, September.
  23. Bryan Ellickson & Birgit Grodal & Suzanne Scotchmer & William R Zame, 2003. "Clubs and the Market," Levine's Working Paper Archive 618897000000000754, David K. Levine.
    • Bryan Ellickson & Birgit Grodal & Suzanne Scotchmer & William R. Zame, 1999. "Clubs and the Market," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(5), pages 1185-1218, September.
  24. Kelso, Alexander S, Jr & Crawford, Vincent P, 1982. "Job Matching, Coalition Formation, and Gross Substitutes," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(6), pages 1483-1504, November.
  25. Moulin, Herve, 2002. "Axiomatic cost and surplus sharing," Handbook of Social Choice and Welfare, in: K. J. Arrow & A. K. Sen & K. Suzumura (ed.), Handbook of Social Choice and Welfare, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 6, pages 289-357 Elsevier.
  26. Shapley, Lloyd S & Shubik, Martin, 1977. "Trade Using One Commodity as a Means of Payment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 85(5), pages 937-68, October.
  27. Kannai, Yakar, 1972. "Continuity Properties of the Core of a Market: A Correction," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 40(5), pages 955-58, September.
  28. Kovalenkov, Alexander & Wooders, Myrna, 2004. "Comparative Statics And Laws Of Scarcity For Games," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 715, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  29. Wooders, Myrna Holtz, 1989. "A Tiebout theorem," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 33-55, August.
  30. WOODERS, Myrna, 1988. "Large games are market games. 1. Large finite games," CORE Discussion Papers 1988042, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  31. Kovalenkov, Alexander & Wooders, Myrna Holtz, 2001. "Epsilon Cores of Games with Limited Side Payments: Nonemptiness and Equal Treatment," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 193-218, August.
  32. Cheng, Hsueh-Cheng, 1981. "On dual regularity and value convergence theorems," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 37-57, March.
  33. Wooders, Myrna Holtz & Zame, William R., 1987. "Large games: Fair and stable outcomes," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 59-93, June.
  34. Myrna Wooders, 2009. "Market Games and Clubs," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0919, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  35. Demange, G., 1991. "Intermediate Preferences and Stable Coalition Structures," DELTA Working Papers 91-16, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
  36. Kovalenkov, Alexander & Wooders, Myrna Holtz, 1999. "A law of scarcity for games," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 546, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  37. Konishi, Hideo & Le Breton, Michel & Weber, Shlomo, 1998. "Equilibrium in a Finite Local Public Goods Economy," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 79(2), pages 224-244, April.
  38. Wooders,Myrna, . "On large ghames and competitive marketsI: Theory," Discussion Paper Serie B 195, University of Bonn, Germany.
  39. Ehud Kalai & Eitan Zemel, 1980. "Generalized Network Problems Yielding Totally Balanced Games," Discussion Papers 425, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
  40. John P. Conley & Myrna Holtz Wooders, 1998. "Taste-homogeneity of Optimal Jurisdictions in a Tiebout Economy with Crowding Types," Working Papers mwooders-98-01, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
  41. Edward Cartwright & Myrna Wooders, 2005. "The Law od Demand in Tiebout Economies," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0527, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  42. Martin Shubik & Myrna Holtz Wooders, 1982. "Near-Markets and Market Games," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 657, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
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  45. Wooders, Myrna Holtz, 1992. "Inessentiality of Large Groups and the Approximate Core Property: An Equivalence Theorem," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 2(1), pages 129-47, January.
  46. Shapley, Lloyd S. & Shubik, Martin, 1969. "On market games," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 9-25, June.
  47. Yaron Azrieli & Ehud Lehrer, 2007. "Market Games in Large Economies with a Finite Number of Types," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 327-342, May.
  48. Wooders, Myrna, 2008. "Small group effectiveness, per capita boundedness and nonemptiness of approximate cores," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(7-8), pages 888-906, July.
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  50. Page Jr., Frank H. & Wooders, Myrna, 2007. "Networks and clubs," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 64(3-4), pages 406-425.
  51. Kaneko, Mamoru & Wooders, Myrna Holtz, 1982. "Cores of partitioning games," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 313-327, December.
  52. Wooders, Myrna, 1978. "Equilibria, the core, and jurisdiction structures in economies with a local public good," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 328-348, August.
  53. Shubik, Martin & Wooders, Myrna Holtz, 1983. "Approximate cores of replica games and economies. Part I: Replica games, externalities, and approximate cores," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 27-48, October.
  54. Myrna Holtz Wooders, 1992. "Large Games and Economies With Effective Small Groups," Discussion Paper Serie B 215, University of Bonn, Germany, revised Aug 1992.
  55. Shapley, Lloyd S & Shubik, Martin, 1969. "On the Core of an Economic System with Externalities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(4), pages 678-84, Part I Se.
  56. Scotchmer, S. & Wooders, M.H., 1988. "Monotonicity in games that Exhaust Gains to Scale," Papers 525, Stanford - Institute for Thoretical Economics.
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