A Consumption-based Approach to Environmental Kuznets Curves Using the Ecological Footprint Indicatory
Recent research suggests that consumption-based measures offer an insightful perspective on the debate on the relationship between economie growth and the environment. In this article, we deepen the eonsumption-based line of inquiry by investigating the empirical èvidenee in support of the environmental Kuznets hypothesis using 1961-2001 ecological footprint data. We test not only inverted-U and linear functions, but a!so power functions as potentia!ly suitable models to represent the relationship between per capita income and environmental impact. Our results do not show evidence of delinking: the rate of growth of the ecologica! footprint slowly decreases when per capita income increases, but the growth itself never stops. The best model approximating this relationship is therefore not a quadratic but a power function, which does not support the case far indefinite economie growth as a prospective solution to environmental problems.
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