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Unemployment and intimate-partner violence: A gender-identity approach

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Abstract

This paper analyzes the causal relationship between unemployment and intimate-partner violence (IPV) introducing a gender-identity approach. I argue that local social predominance of different family structures (stem vs nuclear) in the past shaped distinct present cultural norms regarding the appropriate role of men and women, and that as a result IPV responds differently to changes in relative unemployment rates of men vs women. Coresidence of younger couples with in-laws in stem families in the past reduced the burden of household work, allowing a higher contribution of the younger wife to nondomestic work. In nuclear families, conversely, wives’activities were more confined to the domestic sphere. I construct an exogenous measure of unemployment and find heterogeneous impacts: for individuals living in territories with a nuclear-family tradition, a decrease in female unemployment relative to male unemployment increases IPV, potentially because men feel their traditional breadwinner role threatened. These effects are offset, and sometimes even reversed, for individuals living in provinces where the stem family was socially predominant in the past. I propose a new rationale for IPV in which violence is a way to reinstate the loss of utility generated by what some men perceive as an insult, and provide evidence in favor of this novel explanation.

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  • Ana Tur-Prats, 2017. "Unemployment and intimate-partner violence: A gender-identity approach," Economics Working Papers 1564, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  • Handle: RePEc:upf:upfgen:1564
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    Cited by:

    1. Dan Anderberg & Noemi Mantovan & Robert M. Sauer, 2018. "The Dynamics of Domestic Violence: Learning about the Match," CESifo Working Paper Series 6983, CESifo.
    2. Kjelsrud, Anders & Sjurgard, Kristin Vikan, 2020. "Public work and private violence," Memorandum 1/2020, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
    3. González, Libertad & Rodríguez-Planas, Núria, 2020. "Gender norms and intimate partner violence," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 178(C), pages 223-248.
    4. Bhalotra, Sonia R. & Kambhampati, Uma & Rawlings, Samantha & Siddique, Zahra, 2018. "Intimate Partner Violence and the Business Cycle," IZA Discussion Papers 11274, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    5. Ana Tur-Prats, 2019. "Family Types and Intimate Partner Violence: A Historical Perspective," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 101(5), pages 878-891, December.
    6. Hoehn-Velasco, Lauren & Silverio-Murillo, Adan & de la Miyar, Jose Roberto Balmori, 2021. "The great crime recovery: Crimes against women during, and after, the COVID-19 lockdown in Mexico," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 41(C).
    7. Ericsson, Sanna, 2019. "Backlash: Undesirable Effects of Female Economic Empowerment," Working Papers 2019:12, Lund University, Department of Economics, revised 27 Jan 2020.
    8. Bhalotra,Sonia R. & Kambhampati,Uma & Rawlings,Samantha & Siddique,Zahra, 2020. "Intimate Partner Violence : The Influence of Job Opportunities for Men and Women," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9118, The World Bank.
    9. Molina, Teresa & Tanaka, Mari, 2020. "Globalization and Female Empowerment: Evidence from Myanmar," IZA Discussion Papers 13957, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    10. Rodríguez-González, Ana, 2021. "The Impact of the Female Advantage in Education on the Marriage Market," Working Papers 2021:5, Lund University, Department of Economics.
    11. Eleonora Guarnieri & Helmut Rainer, 2018. "Female Empowerment and Male Backlash," CESifo Working Paper Series 7009, CESifo.
    12. Sara Cools & Martin Flatø & Andreas Kotsadam, 2020. "Rainfall shocks and intimate partner violence in sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of Peace Research, Peace Research Institute Oslo, vol. 57(3), pages 377-390, May.
    13. Arenas-Arroyo, Esther & Fernández-Kranz, Daniel & Nollenberger, Natalia, 2020. "Can't Leave You Now! Intimate Partner Violence under Forced Coexistence and Economic Uncertainty," IZA Discussion Papers 13570, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    14. Anke Becker, 2019. "On the Economic Origins of Restrictions on Women's Sexuality," CESifo Working Paper Series 7770, CESifo.
    15. Andreas Kotsadam & Espen Villanger, 2020. "Jobs and Intimate Partner Violence - Evidence from a Field Experiment in Ethiopia," CESifo Working Paper Series 8108, CESifo.
    16. Colagrossi, M. & Deiana, C. & Geraci, A. & Giua, L., 2021. "Hang Up on Stereotypes: Domestic Violence and Anti-Abuse Helpline Campaign," Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers 21/04, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
    17. Díaz, Juan-José & Saldarriaga, Victor, 2020. "A Drop of Love? Rainfall Shocks and Spousal Abuse: Evidence from Rural Peru," MPRA Paper 102108, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Historical family structure; cultural norms; persistence;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D03 - Microeconomics - - General - - - Behavioral Microeconomics: Underlying Principles
    • J12 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search
    • Z13 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Language; Social and Economic Stratification

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