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Openness, Inequality and Poverty in Africa

  • Alemayehu Geda

This paper explores the relationships between openness, poverty and inequality in Africa. The analysis begins with a review of social development on the continent since 1980, followed by a discussion of openness and a lengthy exploration of the patterns of trade and finance that link Africa to the rest of the world. The macroeconomic policy framework that guided African policymaking over the last three decades is the lens through which poverty and inequality are further examined. The paper highlights the major factors underpinning openness and social development, and concludes with policy recommendations.

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Paper provided by United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs in its series Working Papers with number 25.

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Date of creation: Aug 2006
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Handle: RePEc:une:wpaper:25
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  1. Paul Collier and Jan Willem Gunning, 1996. "Trade liberalisation and the composition of investment: theory and African application," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/1996-04, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  2. Paul Collier & Jan Willem Gunning, 1997. "Explaining African economic performance," CSAE Working Paper Series 1997-02.2, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  3. Dani Rodrik, 1992. "The Rush to Free Trade in the Developing World: Why So Late? Why Now? Will it Last?," NBER Working Papers 3947, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Dani Rodrik, 1998. "Trade Policy and Economic Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa," NBER Working Papers 6562, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Lall, Sanjaya, 1995. "Structural adjustment and African industry," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(12), pages 2019-2031, December.
  6. Delgado, Christopher L. & Hopkins, Jane & Kelly , Valerie & Hazell, P. B. R. & McKenna, Anna A. & Gruhn, Peter & Hojjati, Behjat & Sil, Jayashree & Courbois, Claude, 1998. "Agricultural growth linkages in Sub-Saharan Africa:," Research reports 107, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  7. Louis Kasekende & Damoni Kitabire & Matthew Martin, 1996. "Capital Inflows and Macroeconomic Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_158, Levy Economics Institute.
  8. Mosley, Paul & Subasat, Turan & Weeks, John, 1995. "Assessing adjustment in Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(9), pages 1459-1473, September.
  9. Collier, Paul & Hoeffler, Anke & Pattillo, Catherine, 1999. "Flight capital as a portfolio choice," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2066, The World Bank.
  10. Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Guillermo & Leiderman, Leonardo, 1996. "Inflows of capital to developing countries in the 1990s," MPRA Paper 13707, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  11. Anderson, Kym & Yao, Shunli, 2002. "How Can South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa Gain from the Next WTO Round," CEPR Discussion Papers 3170, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  12. Guillermo A. Calvo & Leonardo Leiderman & Carmen M. Reinhart, 1993. "Capital Inflows and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation in Latin America: The Role of External Factors," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 40(1), pages 108-151, March.
  13. Kanbur, Ravi, 2000. "Income distribution and development," Handbook of Income Distribution, in: A.B. Atkinson & F. Bourguignon (ed.), Handbook of Income Distribution, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 13, pages 791-841 Elsevier.
  14. Augustin Kwasi Fosu, 2000. "The International Dimension of African Economic Growth," CID Working Papers 34, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
  15. Geda, A, 1997. "The Historical Origin of African Debt and External Finance Problems," Working Papers - Money, Finance & Development 62, Institute of Social Studies.
  16. Prebisch, Raúl, 1950. "The economic development of Latin America and its principal problems," Sede de la CEPAL en Santiago (Estudios e Investigaciones) 29973, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
  17. Cornia, G.A., 1999. "Liberalization, Globalization and Income Distribution," Research Paper 157, World Institute for Development Economics Research.
  18. Arne Bigsten & Abebe Shimeles, 2007. "Can Africa Reduce Poverty by Half by 2015?," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 25(2), pages 147-166, 03.
  19. Lofgren, Hans, 1999. "Trade reform and the poor in Morocco: a rural-urban general equilibrium analysis of reduced protection," TMD discussion papers 38, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  20. Dollar, David, 1992. "Outward-Oriented Developing Economies Really Do Grow More Rapidly: Evidence from 95 LDCs, 1976-1985," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 40(3), pages 523-44, April.
  21. Dan Ben-David, 1993. "Equalizing Exchange: Trade Liberalization and Income Convergence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(3), pages 653-679.
  22. Julie Litchfield & Neil McCulloch & L. Alan Winters, 2003. "Agricultural Trade Liberalization and Poverty Dynamics in Three Developing Countries," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 85(5), pages 1285-1291.
  23. repec:fth:oxesaf:96-4 is not listed on IDEAS
  24. Rattso, Jorn, 1994. "Medium-run adjustment under import compression: Macroeconomic analysis relevant for sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 35-54, October.
  25. L. Alan Winters & Neil McCulloch & Andrew McKay, 2004. "Trade Liberalization and Poverty: The Evidence So Far," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(1), pages 72-115, March.
  26. Christopher Adam, 1995. "Review Article: Adjustment in Africa: Reforms, Results and the Road Ahead," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(5), pages 729-735, 09.
  27. Adam Blake & Andrew McKay & Oliver Morrissey, 2002. "The Impact on Uganda of Agricultural Trade Liberalisation," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(2), pages 365-381.
  28. Francisco Rodriguez & Dani Rodrik, 2001. "Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Skeptic's Guide to the Cross-National Evidence," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, Volume 15, pages 261-338 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  29. Jagdish Bhagwati, 2002. "Trade and Poverty in the Poor Countries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(2), pages 180-183, May.
  30. Fischer, Ronald D., 2001. "The evolution of inequality after trade liberalization," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 555-579, December.
  31. Calvo, Guillermo A., 1987. "On the costs of temporary policy," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1-2), pages 245-261, October.
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