The Economics of Civil War: The Case of the Democratic Republic of Congo
This study analyzes the causes of civil wars in the Congo since independence and investigates how the Congo case fits the model of civil war proposed by Collier and Hoeffler. Five conclusions arise from this case study. First, the level and growth rate of national income increased the risk of war by reducing the cost of organizing rebellions and the government’s ability to counteract the rebellions. Second, while regional ethnic dominance served as a basis for mobilization of rebellions, ethnic antagonism was also an obstacle to the expansion of civil wars beyond the province of origin. Third, while natural resource dependence was a significant determinant of civil wars in the DRC, it is the geographic concentration of natural resources and their unequal distribution that made the Congo particularly prone to civil war. Fourth, the government’s ability to counteract rebellions depended more on external support than on the government’s military and economic capacity. Fifth, discriminatory nationality laws, disruptions in the ethnic balance of the eastern region caused by the influx of Rwandan Hutu refugees in 1994, and shared ethnicity between rebels and neighboring regimes—variables which are not included in the Collier-Hoeffler model—were significant determinants of the outbreak of civil wars in the 1990s.
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- Paul Collier & Anke Hoeffler, 2002. "On the Incidence of Civil War in Africa," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 46(1), pages 13-28, February.
- Ndikumana, Leonce & Boyce, James K., 2003.
"Public Debts and Private Assets: Explaining Capital Flight from Sub-Saharan African Countries,"
Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 107-130, January.
- Léonce Ndikumana & James K. Boyce, 2002. "Public Debts and Private Assets: Explaining Capital Flight from Sub-Saharan African Countries," UMASS Amherst Economics Working Papers 2002-02, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Economics.
- Léonce Ndikumana, 2002. "Public Debts and Private Assets:Explaining Capital Flight from Sub-Saharan African Countries," Working Papers wp32, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
- Paul Collier & Anke Hoeffler, 2004. "Greed and grievance in civil war," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 56(4), pages 563-595, October.
- Collier, Paul & Hoeffler, Anke, 2000. "Greed and grievance in civil war," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2355, The World Bank.
- Paul Collier & Anke Hoeffler, 2004. "Greed and Grievance in Civil War," Development and Comp Systems 0409007, EconWPA.
- Nicholas Sambanis, 2002. "A Review of Recent Advances and Future Directions in the Quantitative Literature on Civil War," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(3), pages 215-243.
- Emizet, K-N-F, 1997. "Zaire after Mobutu. A Case of a Humanitarian Emergency," Research Paper 32, World Institute for Development Economics Research. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)